An Exhibit on 1950s Life Reproduces Segregation (2023)

by David S. Rotenstein

The centerpiece in the Montgomery History exhibit, BOOM: The 1950s in Montgomery County is a recreated restaurant booth complete with faux burgers, fries, and root beer floats. Formerly the Montgomery County Historical Society, the organization’s new exhibit debuted in October 2017 and occupies three rooms in the antebellum Rockville home that serves as Montgomery History’s headquarters. There’s also an online component titled “The Suburbanization of Montgomery County, 1950-1960” that is hosted on Montgomery History’s website and produced by the society’s Mary Kay Harper Center for Suburban Studies.

An Exhibit on 1950s Life Reproduces Segregation (1)

In the 1950s, Montgomery County, Maryland was a mostly agricultural Washington, D.C. suburb. For most of the twentieth century, Jim Crow had a firm grip on Montgomery County’s housing, public accommodations, and schools. For more than a century, the county seat had its own Confederate monument, which was only recently given to a Potomac River ferry company that celebrates the region’s ties to the Confederacy.

Much work is required to make our histories more inclusive and equitable.

Montgomery County has more than a million residents and it is among the wealthiest and best-educated counties in the United States. Yet despite these assets, historical organizations throughout the county continue to produce history and historic preservation in ways that omit or sanitize the pervasive role segregation and white supremacy played in Montgomery County’s development. These productions, like Montgomery History’s BOOM exhibit, are visible reminders that much work is required to make our histories more inclusive and equitable. Beyond the exhibit, the books and historical markers produced and designed by the Silver Spring Historical Society and the historic resources surveys that erase the African American presence along with Jim Crow effectively create an environment where history and historic preservation are produced unevenly. The end result is a sort of extension of the old separate and unequal doctrine where white history is celebrated and African American history is tokenized and otherized—if it’s dealt with at all.

As exhibit curator Elizabeth Lay told me when I visited the exhibit in May 2018, Montgomery County has some unique stories about life in Cold War America because of its proximity to the nation’s capital. Suburbanization and Cold War planning are important parts of local, regional, and national history. Lay sought to capture those themes in the exhibit along with some of the lighter aspects of life in mid-century America.

The exhibit is divided into three parts: a timeline spanning the decade occupies a hallway inside the historic house while one room features artifacts and text panels about domestic life and entertainment. The main gallery is dedicated to telling the Cold War story along with a case and text panel about “Music of the Fifties,” which features a recreated restaurant booth. Women’s dresses from the period are mounted throughout the galleries.

An Exhibit on 1950s Life Reproduces Segregation (2)

The restaurant exhibit attempts to tell the story of the Hot Shoppe chain, which was founded in 1927 in nearby Washington. By the 1950s, the chain had locations throughout the District and suburban Maryland and Virginia. An illustrated timeline mounted on a wall next to booth tells the chain’s story.

(Video) The Jim Crow Museum

The booth has been featured in publicity for the exhibit and is where Montgomery History’s executive director Matt Logan was interviewed by a local media outlet. Seated at the booth with an African American reporter, Logan proudly explained the exhibit: “It was an absolute icon and it was something that everyone, who lived here at that time, that everyone went there. It was just a given.”

Well, not exactly. When the NAACP and other civil rights organizations began surveying Montgomery County businesses in the 1950s to identify which ones discriminated and which ones didn’t, two Montgomery County Hot Shoppe locations were found to discriminate. When asked by a Washington Post reporter in 1957, a company spokesperson said, “Naturally we don’t want to embarrass our guests. Our policies are dictated by customs in the area.”[i]

African Americans who were humiliated and excluded by Hot Shoppes and by the many other white-owned establishments in Montgomery County during the 1950s still recall how Jim Crow shaped their daily lives. One woman who grew up in Bethesda—Maryland’s River Road community (and an African American hamlet near the D.C. line)—recalled women walking to work at Bethesda’s Hot Shoppe. I asked if they could eat there if they were employed in the restaurant. “No. I think if they did, they had to eat in the back or they had to bring it to take it out or something,” she replied.

Pastor Ella Redfield, a lifelong Montgomery County resident who grew up in Lyttonsville—another African American hamlet near Silver Spring—explained Jim Crow during her childhood in the 1950s. “Down in the South, they were just straight-up forward, they would just say, whites and coloreds here,” she said in May 2018. “They didn’t make no bones about it. But in the north, and we consider this, even though it’s South, we consider this part of the north. They would have, they would make it so that it was sort of unspoken.”

In the four years I have been conducting fieldwork among African Americans who lived in Montgomery County during the 1950s, the discrimination they faced in stores, restaurants, and movie theaters remains palpable. Yet, the residents in places like Lyttonsville, Wheaton Lane, Tobytown, Scotland, and River Road created their own suburbs within the suburbs with churches, baseball teams, benevolent organizations, and kinship networks , all of which provided the glue that held together hamlets within a larger network of communities comprising Montgomery County’s ‘Black Map.”[ii]

The BOOM exhibit successfully erases the Black experience in Montgomery County during the 1950s. It accomplishes the erasure by not discussing discrimination in the Hot Shoppe timeline and by marginalizing African Americans by discussing their lives in the decade in a few timeline paragraphs and with Green Book reproductions, which curator Lay pointed out don’t include any entries for Montgomery County. Black life in Montgomery County, if you are to believe the BOOM exhibit, simply existed in response to white actions. Basically, in this exhibit and in much of what Montgomery History has produced about African American life in the county, Blacks are actors in a white man’s production, incapable of agency, creativity, and entrepreneurship.

And then there was baseball. Many of Montgomery County’s African American hamlets had their own teams.

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One poignant example that the exhibit might have used to tell the story of 1950s Black life in Montgomery County might have been the Montgomery County Singing Convention. The network of church choirs was established in 1953 by five historic congregations in lower Montgomery County: Macedonia Baptist Church (River Road/Bethesda), Pilgrim Baptist Church (Lyttonsville), Allen Chapel AME (Wheaton), Lee’s Memorial AME (Ken-Gar), and First Baptist (Kensington). More than half a century later, the singing convention still meets every fifth Sunday in one of the member churches.

Harvey Matthews, a Macedonia Baptist Church member and a leader in the effort to preserve the Moses Cemetery in Bethesda, first told me about the singing convention last year in his church’s basement. “One of the ministers would preach and each one of the churches would sing two selections, close out the service and go home,” Matthews explained. “And the next month, it would come to Macedonia. And when you come to your church, you bring a banner in here and hang it up with those five churches on it. Called the Singing Convention.”

And then there was baseball. Many of Montgomery County’s African American hamlets had their own teams. The weekend games were eagerly anticipated and well-attended in many places like Lyttonsville, Wheaton Lane, and River Road. The games drew people to the ballfields and into nearby beer gardens, all of which were owned and operated by African American entrepreneurs.

Matthews, who grew up in River Road in the 1950s before moving to Washington, has vivid memories of the broad social opportunities baseball provided. “I used to run behind my older brother all the time. He’d always take me to all those spots, especially where the little beer taverns was,” he said.

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Standing in front of the Hot Shoppe booth, I asked Lay where visitors can see the Black experience in Montgomery County during the 1950s. “We don’t have a lot of that in our collection,” she replied. After struggling for more words to answer my question, her response was punctuated by a 32-second silence in the recording. “We’re telling a lot of stories in a very small way.”

Lay tried to explain that visitors can learn about African American life when one of the society’s trained docents leads a tour through the exhibit or if she takes people through. “We speak more about them when we’re giving tours than are apparent in the objects. The objects don’t tell that story as widely as when I’m giving the tours,” Lay said.

Why can’t Montgomery History integrate the stories about Jim Crow discrimination as well as stories that speak to the dozens of resilient and thriving African American communities located throughout Montgomery County during the 1950s?

That may be, but I don’t understand why Montgomery History couldn’t integrate the stories about Jim Crow discrimination as well as stories that speak to the dozens of resilient and thriving African American communities located throughout Montgomery County during the 1950s. Even Lay’s assertion that the society’s storytelling capacities are limited by its collections doesn’t withstand close scrutiny. In its Winter 2017 newsletter, Montgomery History’s archivist included a scan of a 1958 NAACP survey of Montgomery County businesses that discriminated.

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The survey identified Hot Shoppes as an establishment that began integrating between 1957 and 1958. Montgomery History has been the county’s contract vendor for archival services for more than a decade and the survey is part of the collections that the organization manages. A reproduction of the 1958 survey would have gone a long way towards making BOOM less whitewashed and more accurate.

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Though Montgomery History’s physical exhibit is constrained by the artifacts in the society’s collections and by the historic house museum’s architectural envelope, the online complement to BOOM also has substantial issues despite not being limited by access to artifacts or space. In the two articles published to date, one on suburban development and another on shopping, African Americans are omitted or reduced to the same marginalized and tokenized stereotypes found in the physical exhibit instead of including examples like the baseball culture or the singing convention.

Montgomery History’s staff could have given more thoughtful consideration to what life was like for African Americans during the 1950s. Their work would have been substantially better had had they availed themselves of the latest research in Black suburbanization.[iii] Even a small round of oral history fieldwork with residents in Montgomery County’s African American communities would have yielded a tremendous amount of material on Black entrepreneurialism, entertainment, housing, and consumer behavior. Montgomery History chose not to, and as a result, the exhibit is a return to the shopworn exhibits from the past century that celebrate one segment of a community’s population while doing great violence to others.

If I were grading the exhibit as the final product in a public history museums course I would be torn between a failing grade or an incomplete. In my opinion, it’s both: it fails to do justice to the county’s history because it is incomplete.

Exhibit Details

BOOM: The 1950s in Montgomery County runs through July 15, 2018 at the Beall-Dawson House, Montgomery County Historical Society, 111 W. Montgomery Avenue, Rockville, Maryland 20850. The museum is open Thursday through Sunday, noon to 4:00 p.m. Admission is free for Montgomery Historical Society members and children under 6. Adult admission is $7; seniors and active military $5. Directions and additional details are available at the Montgomery History website: http://montgomeryhistory.org/.

An Exhibit on 1950s Life Reproduces Segregation (5)David Rotensteinis a Silver Spring, Maryland, historian. He writes on gentrification, race, andhistory and is the proprietor of a small public history consulting practicefocusing on urban and suburban history.

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An Exhibit on 1950s Life Reproduces Segregation (7)

Notes

[i] Jean Jones, “Negro Eating Ban Is Checked,” The Washington Post, August 26, 1957.

[ii] Marcus Anthony Hunter and Zandria Robinson, Chocolate Cities: The Black Map of American Life, 1 edition (University of California Press, 2018).

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[iii] Andrew Wiese, Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century, Historical Studies of Urban America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004); Walter Greason, Suburban Erasure: How the Suburbs Ended the Civil Rights Movement in New Jersey (Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2013); M. Ruth Little, “The Other Side of the Tracks: The Middle-Class Neighborhoods That Jim Crow Built in Early-Twentieth-Century North Carolina,” Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture 7 (1997): 268–80, https://doi.org/10.2307/3514397; Margaret Ruth Little, “Getting the American Dream for Themselves: Postwar Modern Subdivisions for African Americans in Raleigh, North Carolina,” Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum 19, no. 1 (2012): 73–87.

FAQs

Was there segregation in 1958? ›

At the time of the May 1954 ruling, 17 states and Washington, D.C., had laws enforcing school segregation. By 1958, only seven states — Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana — maintained public school segregation.

What techniques did the civil rights movement used to challenge segregation? ›

Resistance to racial segregation and discrimination with strategies such as civil disobedience, nonviolent resistance, marches, protests, boycotts, “freedom rides,” and rallies received national attention as newspaper, radio, and television reporters and cameramen documented the struggle to end racial inequality.

What is the significance of Kennedy using recent events in the conflict over civil rights Is he trying to make a larger point? ›

What is the significance of Kennedy referencing recent events in the conflict over civil rights in his speech? President Kennedy is most likely trying to make a larger point about how important this issue is because struggles are going on that very moment over civil rights issues.

How did the Black Power movement change the civil rights movement? ›

It emphasized racial pride, economic empowerment, and the creation of political and cultural institutions. During this era, there was a rise in the demand for Black history courses, a greater embrace of African culture, and a spread of raw artistic expression displaying the realities of African Americans.

When was segregation ended? ›

In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act, which legally ended the segregation that had been institutionalized by Jim Crow laws. And in 1965, the Voting Rights Act halted efforts to keep minorities from voting.

What year did segregation start? ›

The first steps toward official segregation came in the form of “Black Codes.” These were laws passed throughout the South starting around 1865, that dictated most aspects of Black peoples' lives, including where they could work and live.

Which tactic was primarily used by the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s? ›

sit-in movement, nonviolent movement of the U.S. civil rights era that began in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960. The sit-in, an act of civil disobedience, was a tactic that aroused sympathy for the demonstrators among moderates and uninvolved individuals.

What were the two main strategies employed by the civil rights movement? ›

The best examples are the sit-ins and freedom rides. In some cases, the sit-ins led to immediate changes in local policy and widespread direct action protests eventually led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (which banned segregation in public accommodations).

What was one major achievement of the civil rights movement during the 1940s or 1950s? ›

The US Civil Rights Movement (1942-68) restored universal suffrage in the southern United States and outlawed legal segregation.

How did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 allowed the federal government to fight racial discrimination? ›

Provisions of this civil rights act forbade discrimination on the basis of sex, as well as, race in hiring, promoting, and firing. The Act prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and federally funded programs. It also strengthened the enforcement of voting rights and the desegregation of schools.

How did Martin Luther King influence the Civil Rights Act of 1964? ›

In 1963 King helped organize the March on Washington, an assembly of more than 200,000 people at which he made his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. The march influenced the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and King was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize for Peace.

What did Robert F Kennedy do for the civil rights movement? ›

President Kennedy defined civil rights as not just a constitutional issue, but also a “moral issue.” He also proposed the Civil Rights Act of 1963, which would provide protection of every American's right to vote under the United States Constitution, end segregation in public facilities, and require public schools to ...

What was the main impact of the Black Power movement? ›

It helped organize scores of community self-help groups and institutions that did not depend on white people, encouraged colleges and universities to start black studies programs, mobilized black voters, and improved racial pride and self-esteem.

What were the reasons for the formation of the Black Power movement? ›

The Black Power movement was a social movement motivated by a desire for safety and self-sufficiency that was not available inside redlined African American neighborhoods. Black Power activists founded black-owned bookstores, food cooperatives, farms, media, printing presses, schools, clinics and ambulance services.

Which cultural influence came from the Black Power movement? ›

BAM movement inspired black people to establish their own magazines, journals, publishing houses, theater groups, art institutions, etc. Many art forms abled them to express their cultural differences. African Americans also began to be recognized in literature and art because of this movement.

What are two types of segregation? ›

Contents
  • 2.1 Legal segregation.
  • 2.2 Social segregation.
  • 2.3 Gated communities.
  • 2.4 Voluntary segregation.

Are schools still segregated? ›

U.S. schools remain highly segregated, government report finds A new report from the U.S. Government Accountability Office finds that public schools remain highly segregated along racial, ethnic and socioeconomic lines. One reason: school district secession.

How do you use segregation in a sentence? ›

Racial segregation in schools was ruled unconstitutional.

How did segregation affect Education? ›

From their inception, schools serving students of color received significantly less funding than schools serving white students and faced overcrowding, inadequate supplies, and insufficiently paid teachers. Such disparities resulted in gaps in the educational opportunities available to Black and white communities.

What is the meaning of segregation of duties? ›

Segregation of Duties (SOD) Segregation of Duties (SOD) is a basic building block of sustainable risk management and internal controls for a business. The principle of SOD is based on shared responsibilities of a key process that disperses the critical functions of that process to more than one person or department.

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These lawsuits were combined into the landmark Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case that outlawed segregation in schools in 1954. But the vast majority of segregated schools were not integrated until many years later.

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What were the major events in the Civil Rights Movement? The significant events that occurred during this period include the Brown v. Board of Education ruling, the emergence of the Little Rock Nine, the Montgomery bus boycott, the emergence of Freedom Riders groups, and the March on Washington.

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Nonviolent protest and civil disobedience

With authorities in the South actively resisting court orders to desegregate, some leaders of the Civil Rights Movement turned to direct action and nonviolent civil disobedience.

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Answer: The group or organization that was not inspired by the civil rights movement of the 1950's and 1960's is the feminists.

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Segregated industries like textiles were integrated; state and municipal employment of blacks increased, as well as public benefits to black areas such as street paving, garbage collection and recreational facilities.

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A major factor in the success of the movement was the strategy of protesting for equal rights without using violence. Civil rights leader Rev. Martin Luther King championed this approach as an alternative to armed uprising. King's non-violent movement was inspired by the teachings of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi.

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Civil Rights and Civil Liberties

Civil rights are not in the Bill of Rights; they deal with legal protections. For example, the right to vote is a civil right. A civil liberty, on the other hand, refers to personal freedoms protected from government intrusion such as those listed in the Bill of Rights.

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Du Bois, the NAACP would take the bully pulpit to push for the abolition of segregation and racial caste distinctions, and it would fight for open and equal access to education and employment for Negroes. It would crusade against lynching and offer legal assistance to defend black people mistreated in criminal court.

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This campaign of terror persisted during the Civil Rights Movement. Courageous activists were subjected to threats, mass arrests, beatings, church bombings, and murder. The criminal justice system turned a blind eye to the terrorism, often refusing to protect activists or prosecute perpetrators.

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There are five main causes of conflict: information conflicts, values conflicts, interest conflicts, relationship conflicts, and structural conflicts. Information conflicts arise when people have different or insufficient information, or disagree over what data is relevant.

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Arrested, Montgomery, Alabama. On September 3, 1958, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. attempted to attend a hearing for fellow civil rights activist Ralph David Abernathy at the Montgomery, Alabama, courthouse, when he was violently arrested.

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1959
  • January 9 – One Federal judge throws out segregation on Atlanta, Georgia buses while another orders Montgomery buses to comply.
  • January 19 – Federal Appeals court overturns Virginia's closure of the schools in Norfolk; they reopen January 28 with 17 black students.
  • April 18 – Martin Luther King Jr.

When did apartheid start and end? ›

The apartheid era in South African history refers to the time that the National Party led the country's white minority government, from 1948 to 1994.

When did segregation end in North Carolina? ›

On March 30th, 1955, the North Carolina General Assembly passed the Pupil Assignment Act, a law that delayed integration by shifting the responsibility of desegregation from the state to local school boards. It also removed any references to race in all school laws.

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Milestones Of The Civil Rights Movement
  • The Supreme Court Declares Bus Segregation Unconstitutional (1956) ...
  • The 1960 Presidential Election. ...
  • The Desegregation of Interstate Travel (1960) ...
  • The Supreme Court Orders Ole Miss to Integrate (1962) ...
  • The March on Washington (1963) ...
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964.

What happened in 1950 in the civil rights movement? ›

1950. The U.S. Supreme Court strikes down the segregation of Black people in graduate and law schools. The initial case was fought by Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. Marshall used this win to begin building a strategy to fight the “separate but equal” doctrine established in 1896.

What events led to the end of segregation? ›

Events that initiated social change during the civil rights movement
  • 1955 — Montgomery Bus Boycott. ...
  • 1961 — Albany Movement. ...
  • 1963 — Birmingham Campaign. ...
  • 1963 — March on Washington. ...
  • 1965 — Bloody Sunday. ...
  • 1965 — Chicago Freedom Movement. ...
  • 1967 — Vietnam War Opposition. ...
  • 1968 — Poor People's Campaign.
Feb 9, 2018

What was the civil rights movement of the 1950's 1970's? ›

The civil rights movement was a political movement and campaign from 1954 to 1968 in the United States to abolish institutional racial segregation, discrimination, and disenfranchisement throughout the United States.

What happened in 1955 during the civil rights movement? ›

1955: Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

On December 1, 1955, African American civil rights activist Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a public bus to a white passenger. Her subsequent arrest initiated a sustained bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama.

What happened in 1952 during the civil rights movement? ›

In February 1952 the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) held a meeting in Washington to discuss Senate Rule XXII on cloture, a procedure that Southern senators utilized to block civil rights bills in debate by filibuster.

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  • When Did Apartheid Start?
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  • How Did the Apartheid Government Come to Power?
  • What Were the Foundations of Apartheid?
  • What Was Grand Apartheid?
  • What Happened in the 1970s and 1980s?
  • When Did Apartheid End?
Oct 12, 2021

How did apartheid affect people? ›

Pass laws and apartheid policies prohibited Black people from entering urban areas without immediately finding a job. It was illegal for a Black person not to carry a passbook. Black people could not marry white people. They could not set up businesses in white areas.

Who started apartheid in Africa? ›

Called the 'Architect of the Apartheid' Hendrik Verwoerd was Prime Minister as leader of the National Party from 1958-66 and was key in shaping the implementation of apartheid policy.

Why are schools so segregated? ›

U.S. schools remain highly segregated, government report finds A new report from the U.S. Government Accountability Office finds that public schools remain highly segregated along racial, ethnic and socioeconomic lines. One reason: school district secession.

Why are schools resegregating? ›

Factors that have fueled school resegregation include the lifting of court desegregation orders, discriminatory housing practices that have fostered racially segregated neighborhoods, disinvestment of federal resources that supported school desegregation efforts, and court decisions that limited the strategies that ...

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South Carolina maintained its fully segregated system until 1963. Eleven African American students attended Charleston's white schools under a court order that year, but most school districts were still segregated. The federal government stopped this system by 1970.

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