St. Augustine Record
Jan. 8, 1963
National celebration planned for St. Augustine
With the nation's oldest city preparing to celebrate its 400th anniversary in 1965, White House Press Secretary Pierre Salinger formally announces President John F. Kennedy's appointments to the St. Augustine Quadricentennial Commission. All the members are white. St. Augustine dentist Robert B. Hayling questions why no African-Americans are included.
Jan. 14, 1963
George Wallace and "Segregation forever!"
George Wallace takes power in Alabama, standing on a gold star commemorating the spot where Jefferson Davis was sworn in as president of the Confederacy in 1861.
The newly-elected governor - an avowed segregationist openly supported by the Ku Klux Klan and White Citizens Council - has won a landslide victory.
His famous declaration: "I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever!"
Feb. 23, 1963
NAACP complains to White House
The NAACP formally requests that Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson - who is scheduled to swear in the members of the all-white National Quadricentennial Commission - not visit St. Augustine.
March 7, 1963
Letter from LBJ
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson writes to local NAACP leaders, promising that "no event in which I will participate in St. Augustine will be segregated."
LBJ aide George Reedy consults with Robert B. Hayling to ensure a smooth visit, promising all events will be integrated and that the White House will arrange a meeting between black and white leaders of St. Augustine the day after the vice president's visit.
March 11, 1963
LBJ in St. Augustine
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson visits St. Augustine to swear in members of the National Quadricentennial Commission.
Only a dozen African-Americans, including Dr. Robert B. Hayling, are allowed tickets to the gala for Johnson at the Ponce de Leon Hotel, and are confined to an alcove table - in the back, out of sight, and guarded by Secret Service agents.
March 12, 1963
The broken promise
Dr. Robert Hayling and other members of the NAACP in St. Augustine show up for their anticipated meeting with city commissioners, but instead are left in an empty room with a tape recorder. Vice President B. Johnson has left town.
April 3, 1963
Under withering criticism by detractors, and badly in need of a "win," Martin Luther King Jr. puts his strategy of nonviolent social change to the test when chooses an unlikely and difficult battleground. Responding to a plea from local Civil Rights leader Fred Shuttlesworth, another founding member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), King kicks off a massive protest campaign in Birmingham, Ala. - considered one of the toughest cities in the South.
April 12, 1963
Martin Luther King Jr. is arrested moments after leaving the 16th Street Baptist Church to start a nonviolent demonstration.
April 16, 1963
"Letter from a Birmingham Jail"
From his jail cell, Martin Luther King Jr. uses a tiny pencil and scraps of newspaper to write what will become one of the most famous and influential manifestos of the Civil Rights movement. The "document" is smuggled out by an African-American trusty, pieced together by Wyatt Tee Walker, executive director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and published in several newspapers and magazines.
May 3, 1963
Fire hoses and police dogs
Bull Connor, the hard-line segregationist police chief of Birmingham, orders law enforcement officers to turn fire hoses and dogs on other protesters - most of them teenagers. News photos of the incident outrage people all over the world, become iconic symbols in the struggle for freedom and permanently damage the image of this once up-and-coming city.
May 8, 1963
Hearings Begin in Washington
Hearings on proposed Civil Rights legislation begin in a judiciary subcommittee of the House of Representatives. Over the summer, the subcommittee will hear a total of 22 days of testimony, the last one on August 2.
May 10, 1963
Integration in the Ancient City
African-Americans in St. Augustine request their children be enrolled in various all-white schools.
May 27, 1963
RFK memo on Florida
A memo from U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy formally requests information on segregation in North Florida.
June 1, 1963
Demonstrations in St. Augustine
The NAACP Youth Council, with Robert B. Hayling as its advisor, meets at Bethel Baptist Church.
Street protests begin in front of Woolworth's on King Street, with young demonstrators carrying signs which ask: "If We Spend Money Here Why Can't We Eat Here?"
June 3, 1963
LBJ warns JFK
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson candidly tells President John F. Kennedy "blacks are tired of this patience stuff ..."
Johnson advises Kennedy to "sit down with Russell." The reference is to U.S. Sen. Richard B. Russell of Georgia, a so-called "Dixiecrat" often said to be second in power only to the president. Though he happens to be Johnson's longtime mentor, Russell is a segregationist firmly opposed to the administration's proposed Civil Rights legislation.
June 3, 1963
A new mayor
Dr. Joseph A. Shelley, a local physician, is elected mayor of St. Augustine.
June 5, 1963
J. Edgar Hoover and St. Augustine
The Jacksonville office of the FBI submits a written report to Director J. Edgar Hoover on segregation in North Florida.
June 11, 1963
The "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door"
Openly racist Gov. George Wallace steps into the national spotlight when he makes what he knows is a symbolic attempt at preventing integration at the University of Alabama by physically blocking entry of black students Vivian Malone Jones and James Hood. Wallace refuses to budge even when U.S. Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach personally orders him to step aside, forcing President John F. Kennedy to federalize the Alabama National Guard.
The well-played bit of political theater ends when Gen. Henry Graham tells his governor, "Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States." Wallace moves aside and the two African-Americans register.
June 11, 1963
President Kennedy vows to pass civil rights laws
In response to the events in Alabama earlier that day, President John F. Kennedy addresses the nation in a televised speech - and powerfully announces he will introduce an historic Civil Rights bill to Congress.
Kennedy tells Americans they are confronted with "a moral issue ... as old as the scriptures and as clear as the American Constitution." Though 100 years of delay have passed since President Lincoln freed the slaves, their heirs are not yet free, says Kennedy, concluding: "Now, the time has come for this nation to fulfill its promise."
Martin Luther King Jr. praises the legislation - designed to abolish discrimination - as "the most sweeping and forthright ever presented by an American president."
June 12, 1963
Assassination of Medgar Evers
Just hours after President Kennedy's speech, a field secretary for the NAACP in Mississippi and veteran of World War II named Medgar Evers, is shot to death in his own driveway as he emerges from his car carrying T-shirts bearing the slogan, "Jim Crow Must Go."
June 16, 1963
The police chief and the "N" word
A meeting between local NAACP and St. Augustine City officials for the purpose of discussing integration problems becomes "heated." Police Chief Virgil Stuart, while reading aloud from a magazine article, twice substitutes the "N" word for "Negro."
June 17, 1963
"Watch out for the KKK."
An unnamed individual, who attended the previous night's meeting between the NAACP and St. Augustine city officials, contacts the FBI regional office in Jacksonville to report having received a 10 a.m. anonymous threat: "Watch out for the KKK."
June 18, 1963
Calm before the storm
An unidentified NAACP leader, possibly Henry Twine, speaks to FBI agents, assuring them that "racial feelings" in the black community are "under control." He also states no Muslim or other violent influences exist in St. Augustine. Meanwhile, Robert B. Hayling speaks with a United Press International news reporter.
June 19, 1963
Radio newscast spreads panic
Radio station WFOY in St. Augustine reports Negro leaders are arming themselves in case the battle for equal rights becomes violent.
Robert B. Hayling is quoted: "We are not going to die like Medgar Evers."
"Passive resistance is no good in the face of violence."
"I and others of the NAACP have armed ourselves and will shoot first and ask questions later."
The story airs only once and is pulled after 7 a.m. Few people heard the original broadcast, but a few hours later, "garbled versions" were sweeping through the city.
According to the FBI, Hayling is misquoted as having said: "Unless St. Augustine integrates right now, we will come out shooting."
Hayling receives numerous calls from news outlets, but tells the FBI he had "explained to them that the essence of the desegregation movement in St. Augustine is that of nonviolence."
June 19, 1963
Civil Rights bill advances
President John F. Kennedy forwards his proposal for a sweeping Civil Rights bill to Congress.
June 20, 1963
A scheduled meeting between the NAACP and the St. Augustine City Commission fizzles when only two commissioners, Harry Gutterman and H.L. McDaniel, show up.
In the absence of a quorum, City Manager Charles Berrier states the only purpose of the meeting was to "let the Negroes blow off some steam."
Gutterman and Berrier express "distress" at quotes attributed to Robert B. Hayling. Meanwhile, the office of Gov. Farris Bryant has instructed that Hayling be arrested if he makes any statement threatening violence.
The meeting is adjourned until June 28, even though demonstrations are scheduled to begin before that date.
June 20, 1963
Advice from police
A worker at the Bridge of Lions phones the St. Augustine Police Department to complain that a car driven by blacks is disrupting traffic and - according to FBI records - he gets this response: "Shoot them."
June 21, 1963
A memo marked "URGENT" is sent via teletype from FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover to the bureau's field office in Jacksonville, requesting information about the situation in St. Augustine - in particular, whether the previous night's scheduled meeting had taken place.
Despite assurances the previous night from Harry Gutterman that all facilities under control of the city are integrated, a group of blacks are turned away from the municipal putting course leased to Bert Stone.
Hoover is informed an unspecified number of African-Americans are scouting lunch counters and stores to determine of they employ or will serve blacks.
June 23, 1963
Pickets in St. Augustine
Sporadic picketing occurs at McCrory's and Woolworth's. In response, both lunch counters are closed.
Henry Twine, a leader of the NAACP chapter in St. Augustine, says the organization will appear before the City Commission tonight to petition for appointment for a biracial committee.
June 25, 1963
Free orange juice
Pickets resume around St. Augustine.
A small group of African-Americans demonstrate at the Civic Center, where, apparently the head of the Chamber of Commerce, H.B. Chitty, invites them inside for free orange juice.
The protesters accept - and FBI agents inform Director J. Edgar Hoover.
June 26, 1963
More lunch counters close
At 1 p.m., African-American teenagers conducted sit-ins at McCrory's, Woolworth's and Service Drugs. In all three establishments, the lunch counters close immediately and all unoccupied seats are removed. McCrory's closes the entire store at 2 p.m., but reopens later in the day.
An FBI report states: "One drug store at St. Augustine refused counter service to Negroes and advised them that a request would be made for their arrest for trespassing should they sit in. These Negroes left without incident."
June 27, 1963
Sporadic picketing continues
Sporadic picketing continues at McCrory's and Woolworth's. Lunch counters at both establishments remained closed.
Henry Twine and other NAACP members appear at a City Commission meeting and ask why Negroes have been barred from the public library and city-owned golf putting course. Commissioners reply it is was a misunderstanding, that the city itself is fully integrated and any remaining dispute is with private business.
The commission then passes an ordinance limiting the size of signs used by pickets and prohibiting loitering or barring the entrance to any business.
June 30, 1963
A day of rest
No picketing or demonstrations in St. Augustine.
Protesters continue to refrain from marching on Sundays.
July 1, 1963
Picketing "until further notice"
Picketing resumes in St. Augustine, primarily at McCrory's, Woolworth's and three local drugstores.
Goldie M. Eubanks, vice president of the local NAACP, informs the FBI that Robert B. Hayling "does not control" the local chapter and says picketing will continue on a daily basis until further notice.
July 12, 1963
JFK under attack on Civil Rights
Mississippi Gov. Ross R. Barnett, during heated testimony before the Senate Commerce Committee, protests the administration's recently proposed Civil Rights legislation and accuses President John F. Kennedy of aiding communism.
In a 16-page formal statement, Barnett goes so far as to claim the president and his brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, "have encouraged demonstrations, freedom rides, sit-ins, picketing and actual violation of local laws."
Barnett, whose combative words are read across the country, including its oldest city, concludes, "The president and the attorney general are sowing the seeds of hate and violence. The nation could reap a bloody harvest, which we certainly do not want."
July 12, 1963
Hayling takes up arms
Civil Rights leader Robert B. Hayling states, "Bobby Kennedy should authorize the FBI to investigate and arrest the white people involved in these disturbances."
Hayling also claims he has given guns "to several Negro youths" and will ensure he and his followers can protect themselves.
July 13, 1963
KKK activity increases in Florida
The United Florida Ku Klux Klan meets at Lake Butler. In attendance are about 400 people, including 75 robed Klansmen.
July 16, 1963
"A segregated super-bomb"
The Florida Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights accuses Florida and St. Augustine officials misled Vice President Lyndon Johnson with promises the city was integrated in order to gain $350,000 in federal funds for the upcoming quadricentennial celebration.
The committee recommends the funds be halted, and characterizes St. Augustine as "a segregated super-bomb."
July 18, 1963
The St. Augustine Four
Picketing, as usual in St. Augustine, is reported by FBI agents to Director J. Edgar Hoover. However, just before midnight, Washington is notified of 16 arrests at four lunch counters earlier in the day. Among them are teenagers who will come to be known as "The St. Augustine Four," who have been charged during a "sit in" at Woolworth's.
July 19, 1963
Hoover watches closely
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover directs agents in Jacksonville to continue sending him daily updates on the racial situation in St. Augustine.
July 24, 1963
Hoover intervenes in St. Augustine
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover instructs Jacksonville FBI agents to advise local police of Hayling's remarks concerning violence and the furnishing of guns to African-Americans.
An FBI report quotes Hayling as saying "that although he knew armed violence was not the policy of the NAACP, he did not care. It was going to be his policy."
Meanwhile, in addition to continuing protests at Woolworth's and other St. Augustine lunch counters, about 100 African-Americans are picketing at St. Johns County Jail in anger at the continued incarceration of juveniles by Judge Charles Mathis. All but seven of those charged on July 18 have been freed.
July 25, 1963
And then there were four
Three of the remaining seven imprisoned juveniles, after signing a document in which they agree not to demonstrate until they are 21, are placed on probation by Judge Mathis.
"Others have refused condition of probation and are still being held," notes an FBI report.
The remaining teens become known as "The St. Augustine Four."
July 26, 1963
"Can such a thing be true ... ?"
An editorial in The Daytona Beach Morning Journal is highly critical of the decision of Judge Mathis not to release juveniles unless they promised to refrain from picketing. It quotes a staff member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights as stating, "Can such a thing be true in this country?"
The editorial is quickly reprinted and distributed as a flier. Six blacks are arrested for distributing literature on private property.
August 2, 1963
Hearings end in Washington
A judiciary subcommittee of the House of Representatives concludes hearings on proposed Civil Rights legislation.
August 17, 1963
Mayor Shelley responds
St. Augustine Mayor Joseph E. Shelley publicly answers a critical report by the Florida Advisory Committee on Civil Rights.
With regard to a specific allegation that city officials deceived Vice President Lyndon Johnson by claiming St. Augustine is integrated, Mayor Shelley's answer is unsatisfactory to many on both sides of the issue:
"I don't know what was told to the vice president. I have been in office only two months and he was here before that."
August 28, 1963
The March on Washington
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous "I Have a Dream!" speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to a crowd estimated at between 200,000 and 300,000.
It is a defining event that leaves no doubt King has assumed the mantle of leader of the modern Civil Rights movement.
August 28, 1963
Integration in St. Augustine
On the very same day as the historic March on Washington, five black students in St. Augustine enroll at a previously white school, Fullerwood Elementary: Irvin Brunson, fourth grade; his brother Billy Charles Brunson, sixth grade; his sister, Debbie Jean Brunson, second grade; Michael Coolege Robinson, fifth grade, and Gary Alonzo Robinson, first grade. Retaliation is not immediate.
September 2, 1963
Arrests at the Plaza
For the first time, Civil Rights demonstrations are held at the Plaza de la Constitucion in downtown St. Augustine.
Police use cattle prods on the protesters, and 27 are arrested.
Sept. 15, 1963
Bombing of 16th Street Baptist Church
An explosion rocks the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, killing four little girls - Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson and Denise McNair - as they prepare for a Sunday School they will never attend. This act of terrorism marks a major change in the tone of the Civil Rights movement, and causes many to question the "nonviolent" strategy for social change advocated by Martin Luther King Jr.
Sept. 18, 1963
Hayling beaten at Klan meeting
Civil rights leader Robert B. Hayling and three other men - James Hauser, James Jackson and Clyde Jenkins - are brought at gunpoint to a mass rally of the Ku Klux Klan, beaten and nearly killed.
Two of the KKK members, Lawrence Bessent and Clarence Williams, then file charges against Hayling - who subsequently will be convicted of assault and fined $100.
Sept. 27, 1963
KKK meetings in newspaper
The St. Augustine Record begins publicizing the date, time and location of Ku Klux Klan meetings, arousing FBI suspicion of KKK involvement with the office of Sheriff L.O. Davis
Oct. 16, 1963
Hayling convicted, fined
Dr. Robert Hayling, who was nearly killed at a KKK rally on Sept. 18, is convicted of assault in connection with the incident.
Judge Marvin Grier orders him to pay a $100 fine.
Oct. 22, 1963
Firebombs in Lincolnville
Molotov cocktails are thrown at the homes of all three black families who integrated public schools in St. Johns County earlier in the year.
Oct. 24, 1963
Death of William David Kinard
A 24-year-old fisherman, William David Kinard, is killed when the loaded shotgun he is carrying discharges while he and three other white men are riding through the black neighborhood of Lincolnville late at night.
Oct. 29, 1963
Arrest of Dr. Hayling
Civil rights leader Robert B. Hayling is arrested on charges of hindering in investigation into violence in connection with an incident after the funeral of William David Kinard.
Oct. 30, 1963
Free "The St. Augustine Four"
Earl Johnson, a Jacksonville attorney representing the NAACP, petitions the Florida Supreme Court to order the release of "The St. Augustine Four."
Nov. 4, 1963
Four white men are acquitted of charges in connection with the beating of Robert B. Hayling at a KKK rally on Sept. 18.
Nov. 5, 1963
Five blacks in St. Augustine, including an NAACP leader and several of his relatives, are charged with murder in the Oct. 24 shooting death of a white man, William David Kinard: Goldie Eubanks Sr., Goldie Eubanks Jr., Richard A. Eubanks, Harold Jenkins, Chester Hamilton. A woman, Joyce Green, is held as a material witness. None of those arrested are ever tried for the alleged crime.
Nov. 9, 1963
A "hit" on Dr. Hayling?
At Ship's Bar in St. Augustine, three white men are overheard discussing a $500 reward for the death of a local Civil Rights leader, dentist Robert B. Hayling. Their conversation is reported to the FBI.
Nov. 21, 1963
A cover story in Jet Magazine declares, "OLDEST CITY IN U.S. MOST BACKWARD IN RACE RELATIONS."
Nov. 22, 1963
Assassination of President Kennedy
President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas, while campaigning for re-election.
LBJ becomes president
Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn as 36th president of the U.S.
Dec. 16, 1963
Grand jury issues findings
A report from the St. Johns County grand jury blames recent violence on militant black leaders and the Ku Klux Klan.
As part of an investigation orchestrated by State Attorney Dan Warren, the grand jury has heard testimony from 36 witnesses in five days.
Tuesday, Dec. 31, 1963
King speaks in Birmingham
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers a speech in which he says, "A riot is the language of the unheard."
As the year ends, King is not involved in the local St. Augustine movement and has no idea whatsoever his journey will take him to Florida the following summer.
Friday, Jan. 3, 1964
"Man of the Year"
Many are stunned when Martin Luther King Jr. is recognized as "Man of the Year" by influential Time Magazine.
Wednesday, Jan. 8, 1964
The State of the Union
In his first State of the Union Address, President Lyndon B. Johnson declares war on poverty and makes it clear he will champion the Civil Rights bill introduced by his slain predecessor: "Let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined ... "
Monday, Jan. 13, 1964
Witness still missing
Sheriff L.O. Davis notifies the FBI the whereabouts of missing witness Joyce Green remain unknown.
Cases against Goldie Eubanks Sr. and other St. Augustine blacks charged in the shooting death of William Kinard are postponed.
Tuesday, Jan. 14, 1964
Freedom for "The St. Augustine Four"
The state legislature of Florida orders the release of "The St. Augustine Four."
The teenage protesters have been incarcerated for over five months because of their participation in a sit-in at the Woolworth's lunch counter. During that time, the Sunshine State has been subjected to withering criticism in national media and outrage has been expressed in numerous other demonstrations.
Tuesday Jan. 21, 1964
Car firebombed at PTA
Charles Brunson is attending a PTA meeting at Fullerwood Elementary School in St. Augustine when his car is destroyed by a firebomb at about 8:19 p.m. He is father to three of the five black children who integrated the school nearly a year earlier, on March 28.
Thursday, Jan. 23, 1964
The 24th Amendment
The Constitution is amended to abolish any requirement for payment of a "poll tax" as a condition of exercising the right to vote. Poll taxes, designed as a measure to prevent African-Americans from taking part in elections, appeared in Southern states after Reconstruction and had been upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1937.
Friday, Feb. 7, 1964
A night of terror
The home of Bungum Roberson on Gault Street is firebombed and destroyed. His son was among the first five black students to enroll at Fullerwood Elementary school the previous year, on March 28.
Saturday, Feb. 8, 1964
Hayling's dog killed
Hours after the Roberson house burns to the ground, four loads of buckshot are fired into the home of Dr. Robert B. Hayling at 8 Scott St. The spray of deadly pellets just misses Hayling's pregnant wife, but kills his dog.
Monday, Feb. 10, 1964
Civil Rights bill advances to Senate
The U.S. House of Representatives passes a final version of the Civil Rights Act. The bill moves to the Senate, where it is expected to encounter substantial opposition - especially from powerful Southern Democrats - and possible defeat.
Sunday, Feb. 16, 1964
Bombing in Jacksonville
In Jacksonville, dynamite explodes at the home of Iona Godfrey, an African-American woman whose 6-year-old son Donald has become the first student to integrate Lackawanna Elementary School. Four members of the Ku Klux Klan later will be charged with conspiracy in the case, and Holstead "Hoss" Manucy of St. Augustine will refuse to testify, instead pleading his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination.
Thursday, Feb. 27, 1964
Railroad bombing shakes LBJ
Two dynamite blasts derail 39 freight cars and locomotives on the Florida East Coast Railroad, which has been the focus of a year-long labor dispute involving more than 200 acts of violence. The second explosion occurs on tracks 15 miles west of St. Augustine, while President Lyndon B. Johnson is speaking in nearby Palatka. Johnson, visibly angry during a Democratic fundraiser in Miami that night, pounds his fists on the lectern and vows to bring the full pressure of the FBI to bear.
Friday, March 6, 1964
Dr. Hayling and Dr. King
Robert B. Hayling, in consultation with white journalist Stetson Kennedy, decides the time has come to reach out to Martin Luther King Jr. Hayling drives with Goldie Eubanks, Henry Twine and several other NAACP members, to meet with aides of Dr. King in Orlando, at a meeting of the SCLC.
Wednesday, March 11, 1964
Robert B. Hayling, now identifying himself as a representative for the SCLC, begins recruiting assistance in New England with Hosea Williams, an aide to Martin Luther King Jr. Students from the North are being asked to participate in demonstrations in St. Augustine from March 21 to 28 and March 29 to April 4.
Thursday, March 12, 1964
Mayor Joseph Shelly receives at least two phone calls alerting him to an impending "mass invasion." One is from a St. Augustine student who is attending college in New England. The other is from a Boston radio commentator. Shelly learns the mother of the governor of Massachusetts will be visiting St. Augustine and is asked what he'll do if she violates local segregation laws.
Friday, March 20, 1964
The SCLC in St. Augustine
Robert Hayling publicly announces the Southern Christian Leadership Conference - virtually synonymous with Martin Luther King Jr. - is now involved in the Civil Rights movement in St. Augustine.
Monday, March 23, 1964
The first wave
About 30 students, faculty members and chaplains from New England arrive in St. Augustine with the stated purpose of staging demonstrations.
Saturday, March 28, 1964
A chaplain from Yale University and 26 demonstrators, most of them white northerners, are arrested in St. Augustine for trespassing and conspiracy.
"Black, like me."
Barbara Allen, an African-American from St. Augustine, sits at the lunch counter of the St. George Pharmacy and orders coffee. She adds, "Black, like me." Allen is charged with illegal entry, inciting a riot and conspiring to overthrow the U.S. government.
Sunday, March 29, 1964
Enter, Mrs. Peabody
Mary Peabody, 72-year-old mother of Massachusetts Gov. Endicott Peabody, arrives from Boston late in the evening. It is Easter Sunday.
Monday, March 30, 1964
Trinity Episcopal cancels Communion
Trinity Episcopal Church cancels its Communion when it becomes known Mary Peabody intends to integrate the service.
Tuesday, March 31, 1964
Sit-In at the Ponce de Leon Hotel
Singing freedom songs, about 150 students from Murray High School march past the Slave Market and continue to the exclusive Ponce de Leon Hotel, entering the dining room and taking seats at tables set with linen, silverware and glassware. In a scene which draws inevitable comparisons to Birmingham, St. Augustine police respond with cattle prods and dogs on leashes, arresting all the young protesters.
Also taken into custody is George T. Masscott, a reporter from Boston radio station WGBH, who is tape-recording interviews outside the hotel. Police charge him with inciting to riot and disorderly conduct.
Some 90 demonstrators - including Mrs. Peabody - are arrested for trespass in several different locations. Also among those arrested is Dr. Robert B. Hayling and four visitors from New England, who take seats at the Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge. The interracial group includes Mrs. John M. Burgess, Rev. Donald Clark, Judith Creedy and Rev. William England.
Wednesday, April 1, 1964
Mary Peabody is arraigned in the afternoon. Her arrest the day before by now has generated massive news coverage, and outrage, across the country and around the world. Judge Charles Mathis sets bond at $150 for each of the three charges against her. Mrs. Peabody declines to post bond and instead returns to jail.
Shelly lashes out
In a press release, Mayor Joseph Shelly claims members of the national press and network news outlets have "misquoted and distorted" his statements. The mayor harshly criticizes Mary Peabody, stating he deplores her actions - i.e., that the mother of a sitting governor has come to another state with the open intention of breaking the law. He also tells reporters the civil rights protests have generated no enthusiasm among local blacks.
Mass arrests continue
Another 80 demonstrators are jailed the same day. Among them are two groups at the restaurant of the Ponce de Leon Motor Lodge. The first is made up of four white males and four black females, and the second is made up of three white males and two black females.
Plea for intervention
A motion filed in U.S. District Court in Jacksonville asks for federal intervention in all the St. Augustine trespass and conspiracy cases on grounds those arrested can not possibly receive a fair trial in St. Johns County.
Thursday, April 2, 1964
Hayling, Peabody in federal court
Dr. Robert Hayling and Mary Peabody appear at a hearing in U.S. District Court with co-defendants William S. Coffin and Annie Ruth Evans. Representing the civil rights demonstrators in federal court are attorneys John Pratt, Tobias Simon and William Kunstler. Peabody testifies, posts bond and is released. However, Judge Bryan Simpson rules against the motion to intervene.
FBI reports total
As of this date, according to the FBI, 283 arrests have been made since March 29. Of those, 141 are juveniles. The number still in custody is 180. No demonstrations take place in St. Augustine and no arrests are made.
Friday, April 3, 1964
Exit, Mrs. Peabody
Mary Peabody leaves St. Augustine, departing for home in Boston from the Jacksonville airport. About 128 other demonstrators also have posted bond.
Sunday, April 5, 1964
Hosea Williams disappointed
At a mass meeting of over 200, only 10 adults volunteer to demonstrate. SCLC strategist Hosea Williams is said to be visibly disappointed, pointing out most of the protesters have been younger blacks and even children. "If segregation barriers remain up in St. Augustine it will be because the people here did not support the movement," Williams is quoted as saying.
Monday, April 13, 1964
Mary Peabody on "Today"
Mary Peabody appears as a guest on the "Today" show. Leaders in St. Augustine are enraged.
Tuesday, April 14, 1964
Integration of Trinity Episcopal Church
Trinity Episcopal Church is integrated by five local black Episcopalians. Bishop Hamilton West has ordered all churches in the Diocese of Florida to open their doors to anyone wishing to attend services.
Rebuttal demand made to NBC
The City Commission of St. Augustine contacts NBC-TV to demand equal time for Mayor Joseph Shelly and other city officials on "Today." They protest "misleading statements" made on the show by Peabody and contend she is biased. Their appearance is necessary, they contend, to "present true and correct" picture of what actually has happened in their city.
Thursday, April 23, 1964
Protesters resume their activities in St. Augustine.
Sunday, April 26, 1964
Backlash at Trinity Episcopal
The vestry at Trinity Episcopal Church meets and drafts a resolution to Bishop Hamilton West, censuring the National Council of the Episcopal Church for its position on civil rights. The vestry members include Dr. Hardgvoe Norris, E. W. Trice, Clayton Stratton and Kenneth Barrett - as well as A. H. Tebeault, publisher of The St. Augustine Record.
Tuesday, April 28, 1964
In a week's time, 38 more demonstrators have been arrested.
Monday, May 11, 1964
Police in St. Augustine arrest 43 more demonstrators.
Tuesday, May 12, 1964
A fight over jurisdiction
City and county officials resolve to prevent the transfer of 280 demonstration-related cases from their local jurisdiction to federal court.
Monday, May 18, 1964
"A small Birmingham."
Martin Luther King Jr. visits St. Augustine and characterizes the town as "a small Birmingham."
Tuesday, May 19, 1964
More controversy at Trinity Episcopal
The conservative vestry at Trinity Episcopal Church votes to withhold funds from its diocese. A three-page letter blaming "racial agitators" is published in the church bulletin.
Tuesday, May 19, 1964
Declaration of war
Martin Luther King Jr. has seen enough to make a decision. He leaves town, but vows to return in the near future with "our nonviolent army."
Wednesday, May 20, 1964
War of words on "Today"
Mayor Joseph Shelly appears on the "Today" show, along with Earle W. Newton, director general of the Quadricentennial Commission. For 14 minutes, they attempt to refute the charges made against St. Augustine by Mary Peabody. Shelly accuses the elderly northerner of causing "irreparable harm" by intruding into their city's racial problem. He goes so far as to state Peabody has done a disservice to the entire nation.
Closer to home, Dr. Robert Hayling files a federal lawsuit to compel desegregation of Flagler Memorial Hospital.
Saturday, May 23, 1964
After a seven-hour hearing in U.S. District Court in Jacksonville, Judge Bryan Simpson remands 53 demonstration cases to the local courts in St. Johns County.
Monday, May 25, 1964
A courtesy call
Two representatives of the SCLC - Andrew Young and Harry Boyte - pay an unexpected visit to Mayor Joseph Shelly.
The Return of King
That evening, Martin Luther King Jr. returns to St. Augustine.
Friday, May 28, 1964
Beach cottage attacked
Martin Luther King surveys damage at beach cottage safe house
SCLC staffer Harry Boyte, a white aide to Martin Luther King Jr. reports to police that his parked car was shot up during the night. In addition, Boyte reports to police that the Crescent Beach safe house of King was shot up during the night. Nobody was in the house at the time of the shooting. A photo would be taken later, showing King pointing to a bullet hole in a window of the house.
Sunday, May 31, 1964
KKK members become special deputies
FBI agents in St. Augustine report to Director J. Edgar Hoover that the overwhelmed sheriff, L.O. Davis, has been deputizing members of the Ku Klux Klan to provide assistance with maintaining order in town.
Wednesday, June 3, 1964
The sheriff takes the witness stand
During hearings regarding the ban on nighttime demonstrations in St. Augustine, Judge Bryan Simpson interrogates Sheriff L.O. Davis on the witness stand. Davis denies that Klansmen have been made special deputies.
Friday, June 5, 1964
King holds press conference
Martin Luther King Jr. holds a press conference in St. Augustine. In his remarks, King demands that the city desegregate private businesses, hire additional black employees, establish a biracial committee, and drop charges against all demonstrators. King threatens to bring a "nonviolent army" to St. Augustine should these demands not be met.
Tuesday, June 9, 1964
Night march turns violent
In his Jacksonville federal courtroom, Judge Bryan Simpson rules that the city of St. Augustine cannot legally ban demonstrations during the day or the night, thereby setting the stage for increasingly violent showdowns in the city. That night, SCLC staffer and close aide to Martin Luther King Jr., Andrew Young, would be tricked by his good friend and fellow staffer, Hosea Williams, into leading a night march to the Slave Market. During the march, Young would be assaulted twice by segregationists while trying to lead marchers across King Street to the Plaza.
Wednesday, June 10, 1964
King returns to St. Augustine
Martin Luther King Jr. returns to St. Augustine and hold a press conference at the Elk's Rest. During his press conference, King asserts that he and Ralph Abernathy will take part in a demonstration and be arrested if necessary. King also expresses concerns about local law enforcement's ability to protect demonstrators from segregationists.
Thursday, June 11, 1964
King arrested at Monson Motor Lodge
For the one and only time in Florida, Martin Luther King Jr. is arrested. After polite conversation with hotel owner, James Brock, King and others are arrested for an attempted sit-in at the Monson Motor Lodge. Others who were arrested with him include Ralph Abernathy, Bernard Lee and Clyde Jenkins.
Tuesday, June 16, 1964
Jackie Robinson visits
Retired baseball player Jackie Robinson visits St. Augustine and speaks at a rally attended by 400 people at St. Paul AME Church. While in town, Robinson invites Audrey Nell Edwards and JoeAnn Anderson of the St. Augustine Four to vacation at his home in Connecticut.
King posts bond
Martin Luther King Jr. posts bond, in addition to Ralph Abernathy, Hosea Williams and Bernard Lee.
Thursday, June 18, 1964
Monson pool integrated
In what is remembered as one of the most significant events of the St. Augustine Civil Rights movement, SCLC activists Al Lingo and J.T. Johnson, along with local foot soldiers, integrate the swimming pool at the Monson Motor Lodge. Hotel owner James Brock loses his cool and pours acid into the pool to remove the integrated group of swimmers. Images of Brock pouring acid into the pool end up on front pages of newspapers worldwide.
Mass arrest of rabbis
At the same time the Monson pool is being integrated, 15 rabbis led by Israel Dresner create a distraction in the hotel's parking lot by leading a Hebrew prayer session. All 15 are arrested in what is still the largest arrest of rabbis in American history.
Friday, June 19, 1964
Civil Rights Act passes
The day after the Monson pool incident and after months of filibuster by Southern senators, the Senate passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Sunday, June 21, 1964
"Freedom Summer" Murders
Sometime during the night, three young civil rights workers working for the "Freedom Summer" campaign to register black voters are shot at close range and literally executed by members of the Ku Klux Klan. The murders of James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael "Mickey" Schwermer outrage America, and a massive federal investigation ensues.
Wednesday, June 24, 1964
Connie Lynch speaks at Slave Market
Segregationist leader Connie Lynch addresses Klansmen and other white citizens during a rally at the Slave Market. During the speech, Lynch alludes to the three missing civil rights workers in Mississippi - a remark the crowd greets with laughter.
Klan marches in Lincolnville
After Lynch finishes speaking at the rally, the Ku Klux Klan holds a night march in Lincolnville. Black residents pour into the streets to greet the Klan by singing the words to the hymn, "I Love Everybody." The march takes place without incident.
Thursday, June 25, 1964
Violence at St. Augustine Beach
Morning and afternoon wade-ins staged at a "whites only" St. Augustine Beach by SCLC activists and local foot soldiers both end in violence as segregationists attack the demonstrators. Numerous arrests are made by Florida Highway Patrol troopers.
Klan rallies at the Slave Market
Connie Lynch is joined by Ku Klux Klan attorney J.B. Stoner to lead a rally at the Slave Market for approximately 400 white citizens. Stoner and Lynch both give hate speeches directed at blacks and Jews. Stoner encourages all white men who were hit by troopers at the beach wade-ins to press charges against police.
Thursday, July 16, 1964
Integration law tested
Teams led by the SCLC test the new integration law at 27 local restaurants. They are turned away by all except three.
King returns to St. Augustine
Martin Luther King Jr. returns to town and leads a rally at First Baptist Church. King states that the Klan cannot be allowed to run St. Augustine.
Friday, July 17, 1964
King threatens mass demonstrations
At a press conference in St. Augustine, Martin Luther King Jr. threatens new demonstrations as well as lawsuits against businesses that refuse to integrate.
Failed attempt to integrate Pappy's Seafood
A group of four blacks, including local foot soldier Shed Dawson, attempt to integrate Pappy's Seafood on U.S. 1 South. They are chased away by a small mob. One of them is caught and beaten while two others find Highway Patrol troopers. Dawson gets away and spends two hours hiding in woods across the street while waiting for the situation to cool down.
Friday, July 24, 1964
Monson Motor Lodge firebombed
After leading a good faith effort to integrate local businesses, James Brock finds that his hotel, the Monson Motor Lodge, has been firebombed with Molotov cocktails. Two local men are arrested, but never charged, due to insufficient evidence. The bombing occurs after segregationists began picketing of the Monson to protest Brock's integration of the hotel.
Saturday, July 25, 1964
Stoner and Lynch arrested for cross burning
J.B. Stoner and Connie Lynch are arrested in connection with a cross burning at the City Baking Company. Both men post bond and are released.
SOURCES: http://civilrightslibrary.com, Flagler College
The civil rights movement was an organized effort by Black Americans to end racial discrimination and gain equal rights under the law. It began in the late 1940s and ended in the late 1960s.
1967. On April 4, King makes a speech against the Vietnam War at Riverside Church in New York. On June 12, the Supreme Court hands down a decision in Loving v. Virginia, overturning laws against interracial marriage as unconstitutional.
On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1968—popularly known as the Fair Housing Act—which prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of dwellings based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
- Freedom of speech.
- Freedom of the press.
- Freedom of religion.
- Freedom to vote.
- Freedom against unwarranted searches of your home or property.
- Freedom to have a fair court trial.
- Freedom to remain silent in a police interrogation.
Black men were given voting rights in 1870, while black women were effectively banned until the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. When the United States Constitution was ratified (1789), a small number of free blacks were among the voting citizens (male property owners) in some states.
Though its eleven titles collectively address discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, and sex, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was principally enacted to respond to racial discrimination and segregation.
The civil rights movement was a struggle for justice and equality for African Americans that took place mainly in the 1950s and 1960s. It was led by people like Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, the Little Rock Nine and many others.
Kennedy. Other events that made history that year include the Vietnam War's Tet Offensive, riots in Washington, DC, the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1968, and heightened social unrest over the Vietnam War, values, and race. The National Archives holds records documenting the turbulent time during 1968.
Congress passes 22nd Amendment, limiting a President to two terms. Stalin claims the Soviet Union has the atomic bomb. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of passing U.S. nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union; both are sentenced to death. General Douglas MacArthur relieved of command in Korea.
This act was signed into law on August 6, 1965, by President Lyndon Johnson. It outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared all persons born in the United States to be citizens, "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude." Although President Andrew Johnson vetoed the legislation, that veto was overturned by the 39th United States Congress and the ...
Examples of civil rights include the right to vote, the right to a fair trial, the right to government services, the right to a public education, and the right to use public facilities.
In 1964, Congress passed Public Law 88-352 (78 Stat. 241). The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Provisions of this civil rights act forbade discrimination on the basis of sex, as well as, race in hiring, promoting, and firing.
Is marriage a civil right? Federal civil rights law in the U.S. stems from the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Constitution. Using this standard, marriage has long been established as a fundamental right of all Americans.
The UN Declaration of Human Rights set fundamental rights to which all of us are entitled. Here are the 10 basic human rights every individual must know.
Section 242 of Title 18 makes it a crime for a person acting under color of any law to willfully deprive a person of a right or privilege protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States.
Democrats and Republicans from the Southern states opposed the bill and led an unsuccessful 60 working day filibuster, including Senators Albert Gore, Sr. (D-TN) and J. William Fulbright (D-AR), as well as Senator Robert Byrd (D-WV), who personally filibustered for 14 hours straight.
March on Washington. Arguably one of the most famous events of the civil rights movement took place on August 28, 1963: the March on Washington. It was organized and attended by civil rights leaders such as A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin and Martin Luther King Jr.
There's very little of the kind of formal bigotry and segregation that we saw in Eyes on the Prize, but there's still a lot of discrimination in our society, unfortunately. The modern civil rights movement is working to address the less visible but very important inequities in our society.
Asian American communities were still restricted from suffrage through literacy tests, property restrictions, and voter intimidation. It was not until 1943 and the passage of the Magnuson Act that Chinese immigrants could begin naturalizing as U.S. citizens.
The 1828 presidential election was the first in which non-property-holding white males could vote in the vast majority of states. By the end of the 1820s, attitudes and state laws had shifted in favor of universal white male suffrage. Maryland passes a law to allow Jews to vote.
On July 1, 1971, our Nation ratified the 26th Amendment to the Constitution, lowering the voting age to 18.
In this page you can discover 12 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for civil-rights, like: rights, rights of citizenship, unalienable rights, freedom, constitutional rights, natural rights, civil-liberties, equality, human-rights, choice and minority rights.
Everyone has basic rights under the U.S. Constitution and civil rights laws.
Civil rights include the right to equality, right to use of public facilities, right to government services including public education, healthcare, and right to a fair trial. Right to vote is a political right. Q. <!
Philip Randolph was a labor leader and civil rights activist who founded the nation's first major Black labor union, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) in 1925. In the 1930s, his organizing efforts helped end both racial discrimination in defense industries and segregation in the U.S. armed forces.
- Martin Luther King, Jr. One of the most well-known civil rights leaders, Martin Luther King, Jr. ...
- Rosa Parks. ...
- Barack Obama. ...
- Frederick Douglass. ...
- oprah Winfrey. ...
- Harriet Tubman. ...
- Medgar Evers. ...
- Jackie Robinson.
- Julian Bond.
- Medgar Evers.
- Charles Hamilton Houston.
- James Weldon Johnson.
- Martin Luther King, Jr.
- Oscar Micheaux.
- Harry T. and Hariette Moore.
- Mary White Ovington.
Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.: Martin Luther King Jr. is shot dead at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. King-assassination riots erupt in major American cities, lasting for several days afterwards.
During the longest war in American history, the Vietnam War, 766 Americans are known to have been prisoners of war. Of this number, 114 died during captivity. Unlike previous wars, the length of time as a POW was extensive for many, with some being imprisoned for more than seven years.
1964 MAJOR EVENTS:
President Johnson declares "war on poverty," introduces a variety of federal welfare programs, including Medicare (initially proposed by Kennedy in 1960) Three civil rights workers murdered in Mississippi during "Freedom Summer" 24th Amendment to Constitution adopted, ensuring fair voting practices.
Korean conflict continues as truce attempts fail. Princess Elizabeth of Britain coronated queen upon the death of her father, King George VI. U.S. begins construction of first nuclear submarine, the Nautilus. U.S. detonates world's first hydrogen bomb.
Passed by Congress February 26, 1869, and ratified February 3, 1870, the 15th Amendment granted African American men the right to vote.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.
The result was the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. The new act established the Civil Rights Section of the Justice Department and empowered federal prosecutors to obtain court injunctions against interference with the right to vote.
A major provision of the 14th Amendment was to grant citizenship to “All persons born or naturalized in the United States,” thereby granting citizenship to formerly enslaved people.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866—enacted 155 years ago on April 9—was the first attempt of the national government to respond to and rectify the problems caused by these Redeemers.
In response, Congress passed a series of Enforcement Acts in 1870 and 1871 (also known as the Force Acts) to end such violence and empower the president to use military force to protect African Americans.
Children's civil rights and freedoms include the right to an identity; respect for views of the child; freedom of expression; freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; and freedom of association and peaceful assembly.
Civil rights are personal rights guaranteed and protected by the U.S. Constitution and federal laws enacted by Congress, such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Civil rights include protection from unlawful discrimination.
The Supreme Court has found that unenumerated rights include such important rights as the right to travel, the right to vote, and the right to keep personal matters private.
Stanley, United States v. Ryan, United States v. Nichols, United States v. Singleton, and Robinson and wife v.
- Freedom of speech.
- Freedom of the press.
- Freedom of religion.
- Freedom to vote.
- Freedom against unwarranted searches of your home or property.
- Freedom to have a fair court trial.
- Freedom to remain silent in a police interrogation.
The 1968 Act expanded on previous acts and prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, sex, (and as amended) handicap and family status.