Classroom Segregation: History and Current Impact on Student Education (2022)

The history of classroom segregation in the US reflects the nation’s continuing legacy of racism and systemic racial inequality. As recently as the 1950s, racial segregation in schools was the law of the land. More than six decades after the Supreme Court ruled that law unconstitutional, many schools are still heavily segregated and substantial disparities in school funding along racial lines remain.

As educational leaders search for ways to close achievement gaps and innovate solutions to manage inequitable school funding, they must also confront an ever-growing issue: the resegregation of US schools. Unfortunately, as in the past, the conditions of many schools today continue to separate the haves from the have-nots and further root marginalized groups in positions of disadvantage.

Leaders in education continue to seek ways to ensure that students across all race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background, have equitable access to quality education. This requires addressing the role classroom segregation plays in exacerbating disparities and developing teaching approaches that offset the negative impact of segregation in schools.

A Brief History of Classroom Segregation

As early as the 1930s, members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) were looking for strategies to desegregate schools through lawsuits targeting the legal doctrine of “separate but equal.” However, not until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 did the US Supreme Court unanimously outlaw state-sanctioned school segregation, ruling it unconstitutional.

From their inception, schools serving students of color received significantly less funding than schools serving white students and faced overcrowding, inadequate supplies, and insufficiently paid teachers.

Such disparities resulted in gaps in the educational opportunities available to Black and white communities. In 1950, only 1 in 10 Black adults graduated from high school compared to 4 in 10 white adults. Especially hard hit were people living in states with a history of Jim Crow laws—Black adults in Mississippi, Georgia, and other Southern states having an average of only about five years of schooling.

Resistance to Integration

Once efforts to integrate schools began, campaigns directed by white community leaders and elected officials to resist and defy the Brown v. Board of Education ruling followed. One of the most famous examples occurred in 1957, when Arkansas governor Orval Eugene Faubus called upon the state’s National Guard to block nine newly enrolled Black students from entering Little Rock’s Central High School.

Another defiance of the Brown v. Board of Education ruling took place in Cleveland, Mississippi, where local officials devised schemes to stop desegregation by building schools in locations that kept Black students in all-Black schools, and created “dual residencies” that allowed the school district to continue sending students to particular schools based on their race.

Busing

Nonetheless, proponents of integration pressed on, introducing programs and strategies to address the issue. One controversial strategy to end classroom segregation became known as “busing.” These programs sought to close opportunity and achievement gaps and make classrooms more diverse by busing students of color to white schools and busing white students to schools made up of students of color

However, many white parents objected to the programs, in fear they would lose access to the better-resourced schools. Because large numbers moved their children to private schools or their families to suburban areas (a phenomenon known as “white flight”), Black families shouldered a disproportionate burden in busing and other integration efforts. Some Black families and political leaders also objected to busing programs on the grounds that they were too disruptive and failed to address deeper, causal issues such as inequities in the housing market.

Benefits of Desegregation

Despite resistance to busing and other efforts aimed at desegregating schools, integration programs delivered meaningful educational opportunities to generations of Americans by helping to address funding inequities that exist between between schools that are predominantly white and those that are predominantly non-white.

(Video) Schools & Social Inequality: Crash Course Sociology #41

Consider the research of University of California, Berkeley, economist Rucker Johnson, who studied the effects of court-ordered school desegregation on socioeconomic and health outcomes.. He found that high school graduation rates for Black students jumped by almost 15 percent when they attended integrated schools for five years. This attendance also decreased those students’ chances of living in poverty as an adult by 11 percent. Such improvements correlated with greater access to school resources; Johnson’s research found desegregation plans effectively narrowed Black-white gaps in per-pupil school spending and class size.

However, any discussion of the benefits of busing should also acknowledge that the Black students who were bused to previously all-white schools faced immeasurable hardships. Whatever positive outcomes resulted from access to greater resources or exposure to institutions that prepared them for predominantly white postsecondary and professional settings, they were gained in the face of widespread hostility and discrimination from white educators and students alike.

Integrated Schools and Achievement

Research from the National Coalition on School Diversity (NCSD) found integrated schools offer many advantages. The coalition reports that integrated schools on average function at a higher level, with greater parent involvement, less teacher turnover, and more and better quality resources. Students at integrated schools not only achieve at higher levels in math, science, language, and reading, but they also benefit in nonacademic ways. The NCSD, citing research from several scholars, lists the following among outcomes that are associated with attending integrated schools:

  • Decreased levels of racial and ethnic prejudice
  • Improved ability to navigate multicultural environments
  • A break in stereotypes and fears about other races and ethnic groups passed down between generations
  • Better overall health and well-being

Resegregation in Today’s Classroom

Despite gains made in the 1970s and ’80s to desegregate schools, a series of court rulings ending mandatory desegregation programs have resulted in growing numbers of segregated schools.

A study from the Civil Rights Project found that the number of schools in which students of color make up 90 percent or more of the student population has tripled since 1988. Today, more than 40 percent of Black and Hispanic students attend schools where 9 out of 10 students are students of color. According to the Civil Rights Project study, “Black students in the South are less likely to attend a school that is majority white than about 50 years ago.” In fact, the study reports, the percentage of Black students attending schools in which white students make up at least 50 percent of the student body dropped from 44 percent in 1989 to 23 percent in 2011.

This return to segregation is a return to the original problem: separate and unequal. More specifically, the problem is not that predominantly Black and Hispanic schools exist, but rather that predominantly Black and Hispanic schools continue to face economic, social, and structural challenges that predominantly white schools do not. Most schools serving majority nonwhite student populations are in low-income areas, and due to funding systems that rely on property taxes to finance education, these schools receive much less money. A report from Edbuild estimates that school districts serving mostly students of color receive $23 billion less than districts serving equal numbers of white students.

A system that relies so heavily on community wealth favors districts that can concentrate resources at the expense of larger populations; average enrollment in white districts is just over 1,500 students, while nonwhite districts serve over 10,000 students, according to Edbuild. Average revenue per student in nonwhite school districts is $2,226 lower than in white school districts.

Effects of Resegregation

Just as desegregation produces positive results for students of color, the shift away from re-integration produces noted declines for them. In the study “Ending to What End? The Impact of the Termination of Court-Desegregation Orders on Residential Segregation and School Dropout Rates,” researcher David D. Liebowitz found that in districts that discontinued integration programs, dropout rates immediately jumped for Black and Hispanic students compared to those districts where programs remained intact.

Strategies to Address Segregation

Much of segregation, whether in schools or neighborhoods, traces back to a history of discriminatory policies. For example, redlining, the practice of denying loans to people of color trying to purchase homes in predominantly white neighborhoods, prevented many families of color from moving into areas with well-funded schools.

Overcoming such legacies has proven a painfully slow process. However, some leaders in education point to solutions that can help address problems of inequity even if they can’t change segregated housing patterns. San Antonio Independent School District’s Diverse by Design program has set into place several initiatives to bolster integration in schools including:

  • Addressing transportation needs
  • Building schools using a 50-50 enrollment model based on family income
  • Redrawing attendance zone lines or eliminating them altogether
  • Adding specialized academic programs to encourage enrollment

In addition to these solutions, educators can use classroom strategies to help offset the negative effects of segregation. Founding principal of Maya Angelou Public Charter School in Washington, DC, Nataki Gregory argues that even though public policy and systemic racism have caused segregation, “culturally relevant teaching practices, teacher coaching and strategic use of technology could help us overcome the barriers that our neighborhoods present to desegregation.”

(Video) Segregation by Any Other Name | American Education

In the article “4 Ways Teachers in Segregated Classrooms Can Desegregate Their Students’ Learning,” Gregory presents ideas to offset the effects of classroom segregation. Some of them include:

  • Strategic use of technology: Use the internet and meeting platforms like Zoom in the classroom to connect with schools across the city and country. While teaching students about European colonization of the Americas, for instance, connect with other classrooms to explore the differences and similarities about what’s being taught. Follow up with discussions exploring the different perspectives on the topic and how to discuss ideas with those holding conflicting viewpoints.

  • Focus questions and activities on the world: Rather than relying on textbooks to direct activity, drive student engagement by exploring topics relevant beyond the walls of the classroom and investigating issues that students find meaningful.

  • Establish a culture of coaching in schools: Teachers need encouragement and feedback to improve their teaching practice. Coaching can offer this, and it can give teachers a chance to discuss their mindsets and discover their own racial biases that might get in the way of activating the potential of all their students.

Transform Education Through Leadership

Tackling challenges like classroom segregation calls for well-prepared leaders. To ensure all students have access to schools where they can grow and thrive, educators must know how to disrupt the status quo with creative solutions to problems and inequities.

American University offers a comprehensive degree program that cultivates skills in system change, personal leadership, social justice and anti-racism, and policy and research. Explore how a Doctorate in Education Policy and Leadership equips aspiring educational leaders to transform American education.

Education Policy Issues in 2020 and Beyond

(Video) The History of Race in Higher Education

AFT, “Jim Crow’s Schools”

The Atlantic, “School Segregation Is Not a Myth”

The Atlantic, “There’s a Generational Shift in the Debate Over Busing”

Chalkbeat, “When School Districts Resegregate, More Black and Hispanic Students Drop Out”

The Civil Rights Project, “Harming Our Common Future: America’s Segregated Schools 65 Years After Brown”

Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, “Ending to What End? The Impact of the Termination of Court-Desegregation Orders on Residential Segregation and School Dropout Rates”

Education Dive, “Study: School Segregation Persists 65 Years After Brown Decision”

(Video) AERA 2018: School Segregation, Desegregation, Resegregation, and Integration

Encyclopedia Britannica, “Little Rock Nine”

Governing, “After Decades-Long Legal Battle, Mississippi School District Ordered to Desegregate”

Library of Congress, School Segregation and Integration

The National Coalition on School Diversity, “School Integration and K-12 Outcomes: An Updated Quick Synthesis of the Social Science Evidence”

Pacific Standard, “Non-White School Districts Get $23 Billion Less Funding Than White Ones”

The 74, “Gregory: 4 Ways Teachers in Segregated Classrooms Can Desegregate Their Students’ Learning”

The 74, “12 Things to Know About School Segregation — and How Integration Helps Students”

The University of Texas at Austin, Texas ScholarWorks, Remarks on Bussing by Shirley Chisholm (Excerpt)

Vox, “The Data Proves That School Segregation Is Getting Worse”

The Washington Post, “What Black Students Who Were Bused Said About Their Experiences”

FAQs

What was the impact of segregated schools? ›

From their inception, schools serving students of color received significantly less funding than schools serving white students and faced overcrowding, inadequate supplies, and insufficiently paid teachers. Such disparities resulted in gaps in the educational opportunities available to Black and white communities.

Why is it important to learn about segregation? ›

It helps end racism; it helps students and parents; it gives a full and honest view of African Americans and it helps fight xenophobic views. These things benefit all students and makes schools a place where all children can feel valued, appreciated and safe.

What was the purpose of segregation in schools? ›

A principal source of school segregation is the persistence of residential segregation in American society; residence and school assignment are closely linked due to the widespread tradition of locally controlled schools. Residential segregation is related to growing income inequality in the United States.

What does segregation mean in education? ›

(c) The term “segregation” means the operation of a school system in which students are wholly or substantially separated among the schools of an educational agency on the basis of race, color, sex, or national origin or within a school on the basis of race, color, or national origin.

What are the causes and effects of segregation? ›

The issue with segregation is that it often causes inequality.” Researchers argue racial and economic residential segregation results in neighborhoods with high poverty. This is associated with fewer banks investing in these areas, lower home values and poor job opportunities.

Is there still segregation in schools today? ›

U.S. schools remain highly segregated, government report finds A new report from the U.S. Government Accountability Office finds that public schools remain highly segregated along racial, ethnic and socioeconomic lines.

What are some questions about segregation? ›

Do you have any personal experiences with segregation? (segregated against) How did you personally deal with racial segregation? Did you ever confront any discrimination around you? Why or why not? What was the result?

How does racial inequality affect education? ›

Research shows that compared with white students, black students are more likely to be suspended or expelled, less likely to be placed in gifted programs and subject to lower expectations from their teachers.

When was there segregation in schools? ›

On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that segregation in public education was unconstitutional, overturning the "separate but equal" doctrine in place since 1896, and sparking massive resistance among white Americans committed to racial inequality. The Supreme Court's landmark decision in Brown v.

What is the advantage of separate school? ›

By attending a school where all students are in the same gender, there will be a more relaxed atmosphere. 2. Students can concentrate more on their studies. Another advantage of not existing with members of the opposite sex in classrooms is the prevention of distraction.

When was segregation done? ›

In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that segregation was constitutional. The ruling established the idea of “separate but equal.” The case involved a mixed-race man who was forced to sit in the Black-designated train car under Louisiana's Separate Car Act.

When was segregation abolished? ›

In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act, which legally ended the segregation that had been institutionalized by Jim Crow laws. And in 1965, the Voting Rights Act halted efforts to keep minorities from voting.

What is an example of segregation? ›

Segregation is the act of separating, especially when applied to separating people by race. An example of segregation is when African American and Caucasian children were made to attend different schools.

What is the true meaning of segregation? ›

1 : the act or process of segregating : the state of being segregated. 2a : the separation or isolation of a race, class, or ethnic group by enforced or voluntary residence in a restricted area, by barriers to social intercourse, by separate educational facilities, or by other discriminatory means.

How do you use segregated in a sentence? ›

Segregated sentence example. Blacks and whites are segregated in all schools. The Cycle Lane will be segregated from vehicles and will share the existing footway.

What is the impact of segregation? ›

The racial segregation of neighborhoods and the denial of capital to people of color fueled the geographic concentration of poverty, disinvestment by public and private institutions, and neighborhood distress.

What are the different types of segregation? ›

Segregation is made up of two dimensions: vertical segregation and horizontal segregation.

What is the positive effect of segregation? ›

Segregation, particularly when the segregated group corresponds to better-off members of society, produces a greater level of labor productivity (Díaz et al., 2020). Social interactions within neighborhoods are a significant device to find a job among peers; hence, they boost labor market matchings.

What is the biggest factor in school segregation? ›

Nationwide, the biggest factor contributing to racial school segregation, by far, is segregation between public school districts. On average across the 403 metro areas, more than half (54 percent) of the total non-White–White segregation is due to segregation between public school districts.

Are schools segregated by class? ›

While US schools are growing more diverse, they remain highly segregated by race and class, according to a new analysis.

What ended segregation in public places? ›

Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 marked a milestone in the long struggle to extend civil, political, and legal rights and protections to African Americans, including former slaves and their descendants, and to end segregation in public and private facilities.

What were the failures of the civil rights movement? ›

The biggest failure of the Civil Rights Movement was in the related areas of poverty and economic discrimination. Despite the laws we got passed, there is still widespread discrimination in employment and housing. Businesses owned by people of color are still denied equal access to markets, financing, and capital.

What are some good questions about the civil rights? ›

Do you believe that the promise of equality has been fulfilled now? Did the civil rights movement have an impact on the whole of the US population or just Blacks? What were the failures of the Civil Rights Movement? Do you think marches, sit-ins, and other demonstrations helped or hurt the movement?

How long did the civil rights movement last? ›

The civil rights movement was an organized effort by Black Americans to end racial discrimination and gain equal rights under the law. It began in the late 1940s and ended in the late 1960s.

How can we solve inequality in education? ›

Invest more resources for support in low-income, underfunded schools such as, increased special education specialists and counselors. Dismantle the school to prison pipeline for students by adopting more restorative justice efforts and fewer funds for cops in schools.

What is an example of inequality in education? ›

For instance, students from economically poor families are more likely to attend schools characterized by worse infrastructure, fewer qualified teachers, less ambitious peers and outmoded pedagogical practices compared with those in more affluent areas. Hence they are more likely to end up with lower learning outcomes.

What are some examples of inequality in the school system? ›

Educational Inequality is about the disparity of access to educational resources between different social groups. Some examples of these resources include school funding, experienced and qualified educators, books, technologies and school facilities such as sports and recreation.

What do you mean by racial segregation? ›

racial segregation, the practice of restricting people to certain circumscribed areas of residence or to separate institutions (e.g., schools, churches) and facilities (parks, playgrounds, restaurants, restrooms) on the basis of race or alleged race.

What is this discrimination? ›

Discrimination is the unfair or prejudicial treatment of people and groups based on characteristics such as race, gender, age or sexual orientation.

How did the civil rights movement impact education? ›

Equal Opportunity, Equal Recognition

The Civil Rights Act also influenced the implementation of educational polices that emphasized equity in education such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 and later, the 2015 reauthorization—Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).

How will be education in the future? ›

Diversity in the education system in the future is quite possible as there will be plenty of technology that will be used in the education industry in the future. Students can study from the schools as well as from their own house. It is very much accurate to say that online learning is the future of education.

Why single schools are better than mixed schools? ›

They learn from and are inspired by each other." Coed schools better prepare girls and boys for post-secondary school and employment by providing ongoing opportunities to work together, he adds. "They learn to work together productively, which is what they will be expected to do throughout their life.

Do students learn better in same gender classrooms? ›

A new study has found that converting educational environments from single-sex to co-ed leads to falling academic results for both boys and girls.

What was generally true about segregated facilities? ›

What was generally true about segregated facilities? Facilities for African Americans were of poorer quality. Populists argued that services such as telephone and telegraph service: Should be made affordable to everyone.

What was the last state to desegregate schools? ›

The last school that was desegregated was Cleveland High School in Cleveland, Mississippi. This happened in 2016.

Is there still segregation in the United States? ›

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 superseded all state and local laws requiring segregation.

Why was ending segregation so difficult? ›

Why was ending segregation so difficult? Segregation was enforced by many state and federal laws. not doing business with companies that enforce segregation.

What was the impact of segregated schools on African American students Brainly? ›

What was the impact of segregated schools on African American students? Underfunded African American schools could not prepare most students for college or careers. President Eisenhower sent federal troops to protect students.

What are civil rights simple definition? ›

Civil rights are personal rights guaranteed and protected by the U.S. Constitution and federal laws enacted by Congress, such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Civil rights include protection from unlawful discrimination.

How do you speak segregation? ›

How to Pronounce Segregation? (CORRECTLY) - YouTube

What have you understand on the word segregation based on the lesson? ›

the act or practice of segregating; a setting apart or separation of people or things from others or from the main body or group: gender segregation in some fundamentalist religions. the institutional separation of an ethnic, racial, religious, or other minority group from the dominant majority.

What is the root word of segregation? ›

Etymology. From Latin sēgregātus, perfect passive participle of sēgregō (“I separate”), from sē- (“apart”) + gregō (“I flock or group”), from grex (“flock”).

What does segregation mean in education? ›

(c) The term “segregation” means the operation of a school system in which students are wholly or substantially separated among the schools of an educational agency on the basis of race, color, sex, or national origin or within a school on the basis of race, color, or national origin.

What is segregated education system? ›

Definition. 'Segregation occurs when students with disabilities are educated in separate environments (classes or schools) designed for students with impairments or with a particular impairment.

What is segregation method? ›

Share. Information on techniques used to separate dangerous goods, including the use of distance or inert materials, cut-off storage, and detached storage.

Is segregation a negative word? ›

The word Segregation has a bad connotation – and rightfully so. The practice of restricting a person's rights and privileges in society, based on skin colour, faith or ethnicity, has become unacceptable in our Western culture, even though it's still practiced in some isolated areas.

What is the difference between separate and segregate? ›

Originally, the difference was that separate meant to take two or more classes of things or people and put them in different places. But segregate meant to take one of these classes and isolate it from all the others.

Is segregation a noun or verb? ›

verb (used without object), seg·re·gat·ed, seg·re·gat·ing. to separate, withdraw, or go apart; separate from the main body and collect in one place; become segregated. to practice, require, or enforce segregation, especially racial segregation. Genetics.

What was the impact of segregated schools on African American students quizlet? ›

What was the impact of segregated schools on African American students? Underfunded African American schools could not prepare most students for college or careers. President Eisenhower sent federal troops to protect students.

What was the impact of desegregation? ›

Each additional year of exposure to desegregated schools increased black men's annual earnings by roughly 5 percent. Court-ordered desegregation of U.S. schools began in the 1960s and continued through the 1980s.

How does race impact education? ›

Embedded racial inequities produce unequal opportunities for educational success. Systematic policies, practices and stereotypes work against children and youth of color to affect their opportunity for achieving educational success.

How did the civil rights movement impact education? ›

Equal Opportunity, Equal Recognition

The Civil Rights Act also influenced the implementation of educational polices that emphasized equity in education such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 and later, the 2015 reauthorization—Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).

Which statement best summarizes the opinion concerning segregation in Brown versus Board of Education? ›

Which statement best summarizes the opinion concerning segregation in Brown v. Board of Education? The Fourteenth Amendment does not mention public education. Some earlier court decisions allowed schools to segregate students on the basis of race.

Which statement most closely summarizes the meaning of this passage segregation is not acceptable? ›

Which statement most closely summarizes the meaning of this passage ? Segregation is not acceptable if separate facilities are not equal .

Why were separate but equal schools often unfair to African Americans they were usually located right next to white schools? ›

Why were "separate but equal" schools often unfair to African Americans? They were in poor condition and did not have proper funding. Prior to 1950, the NAACP focused its legal efforts on which issue?

When was there segregation in schools? ›

On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that segregation in public education was unconstitutional, overturning the "separate but equal" doctrine in place since 1896, and sparking massive resistance among white Americans committed to racial inequality. The Supreme Court's landmark decision in Brown v.

When did segregation in schools end? ›

These lawsuits were combined into the landmark Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case that outlawed segregation in schools in 1954.

When was segregation done? ›

In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that segregation was constitutional. The ruling established the idea of “separate but equal.” The case involved a mixed-race man who was forced to sit in the Black-designated train car under Louisiana's Separate Car Act.

How can we stop discrimination in schools? ›

This can be done in a variety of ways, including:
  1. challenging stereotypes when they are heard.
  2. discussing stereotypes with students.
  3. identifying stereotypes in the curriculum.
  4. highlighting stereotypical images and roles in textbooks.
  5. allocating posts of responsibility equitably.

How can we solve inequality in education? ›

Invest more resources for support in low-income, underfunded schools such as, increased special education specialists and counselors. Dismantle the school to prison pipeline for students by adopting more restorative justice efforts and fewer funds for cops in schools.

What are the example of discrimination in school? ›

Some forms of discrimination in schools are fair. For example, all schools divide learners by age for sports teams and other extra-mural activities. That is age discrimination; but it is fair, in most cases. For example, you would not want to see 18-year-olds playing competitive soccer against nine-year-olds.

Why was ending segregation so difficult? ›

Why was ending segregation so difficult? Segregation was enforced by many state and federal laws. not doing business with companies that enforce segregation.

Why civil rights is important in education? ›

Guaranteeing and protecting education as a civil right can serve important goals, including providing a foundation to a thriving democracy, preparing schoolchildren to become productive members of our economy and society, reducing the societal costs of inadequate education, and remedying the fundamental injustice of ...

What ended segregation in public places? ›

Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 marked a milestone in the long struggle to extend civil, political, and legal rights and protections to African Americans, including former slaves and their descendants, and to end segregation in public and private facilities.

Videos

1. School Segregation: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
(LastWeekTonight)
2. Teacher Diversity and Student Success: Why Racial Representation Matters in the Classroom
(American University School of Public Affairs)
3. The Racist History of Standardized Testing
(Haymarket Books)
4. Understanding the Impact of Segregation in American Housing & Education
(Equity Erudition)
5. Talks for Good: A Historical Perspective on Equity in Education
(Walden University)
6. Anti-Roma Racism, Segregation and Education
(Centro de Estudos Sociais da Universidade de Coimbra)

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