Considering LRE in Placement Decisions (2022)

Current as of April 2022

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Least restrictive environment, or LRE as it is more commonly called, is one of several vital components in the development of a child’s IEP and plays a critical role, influencing where a child spends his or her time at school, how services are provided, and the relationships the child develops within the school and community. Indeed, LRE is a foundational element in building an appropriate IEP that can improve outcomes for a child—in school and in life.

Quick-Jump Links

  • Summarizing LRE
  • The core of IDEA’s LRE provisions
  • Key terms in LRE
  • Considering the meaning of “regular educational environment”
  • Considering the meaning of “satisfactorily educated”
  • Considering “supplementary aids and services”
  • What other settings can be considered?
  • Who decides placement?
  • How does the group decide placement?
  • Notifying parents

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Summarizing LRE

In basic terms, LRE refers to the setting where a child with a disability can receive an appropriate education designed to meet his or her educational needs, alongside peers without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate. As the Department explained in the Analysis of Comments and Changes to the final Part B regulations in the Federal Register:

The LRE requirements in §§300.114 through 300.117 express a strong preference, not a mandate, for educating children with disabilities in regular classes alongside their peers without disabilities. (71 Fed. Reg. 46585)

LRE has been a part of federal special education law from its inception in 1975. LRE’s basic statutory provision has remained intact for the past 30 years.

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(Video) Placement Decisions, LRE, and the Continuum of Alternative Placements

The Core of IDEA’s LRE Provisions

IDEA’s LRE provisions are found at §§300.114 through 300.117. We’ll be looking at these throughout this discussion. To begin, though, let’s look at the core of what IDEA requires.

Each public agency must ensure that—

(i) To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are nondisabled; and

(ii) Special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. [§300.114(a]

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Key Terms in LRE

The core of IDEA’s LRE provisions contains many key terms and phrases that, together, reveal the law’s strong preference for where children with disabilities are to be educated: the regular educational environment. Consider the specific wording and phrases in the provision:

  • Special classes
  • Separate schooling
  • Other removal from the regular educational environment
  • Occurs only if…

Since its earliest days, the law has displayed a strong preference for children with disabilities to be educated alongside their peers without disabilities, to the maximum extent appropriate. It recognizes that, in many cases, supplementary aids and services must be provided to a child with a disability to enable him or her to be educated in the general education classroom. Supplementary aids and services can play a pivotal role in supporting the education of individual children with disabilities in the regular educational environment.

Simply put, removal of a child with disabilities from the regular education class may occur only if the child cannot be satisfactorily educated in the regular educational environment with the use of supplementary aids and services.

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Considering the Meaning of “Regular Educational Environment”

The use of the term “regular educational environment” is longstanding in IDEA’s regulations. In response to a public comment on the scope of the LRE provision, the Department explained that the term “encompasses regular classrooms and other settings in schools such as lunchrooms and playgrounds in which children without disabilities participate” (71 Fed. Reg. 46585).

The settings in a school where children without disabilities participate are many and varied; all are considered part of the “regular educational environment.”

(Video) The Endrew Decision, Placement, and Least Restrictive Environment

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Considering the Meaning of “Satisfactorily Educated”

There isn’t a specific standard or level established within IDEA for determining what it means for the education of a child with a disability to be “achieved satisfactorily.” Rather, each child’s IEP is the measuring tool. The IEP team determines if a child’s education is appropriate and if it is being achieved satisfactorily.

The IEP may be reviewed and revised, enabling the IEP team to respond to concerns that the child’s education in the regular educational environment “cannot be achieved satisfactorily” and to make necessary and appropriate adjustments or modifications, especially regarding the type of supplementary aids and services provided to support the child’s education in a regular classroom setting.

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Considering “Supplementary Aids and Services”

Providing supplementary aids and services is essential for many children with disabilities to progress and learn. But just what are supplementary aids and services?

The term “supplementary aids and services” is defined at §300.42, as follow:

Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and in extracurricular and nonacademic settings, to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with §§300.114 through 300.116.

Supplementary aids and services can be accommodations and modifications to the curriculum under study or the manner in which that content is presented or a child’s progress is measured, but that’s not all they are or can be. Supplementary aids and services can also include direct services and supports to the child, as well as support and training for staff who work with that child. Determining what constitutes appropriate supplementary aids and services for a particular child is made on an individual basis. If you’d like to know more about these vital supports, please read our separate page, Supplementary Aids and Services. Examples can include:

  • providing students with extra time to take tests or complete assignments
  • giving shorter or different assignments
  • providing feedback more frequently than other children
  • providing slower-paced instruction
  • providing physical adaptations
  • providing a note-taker or another assistant to a student
  • equipping the student with a home set of class materials
  • allowing breaks
  • preferential seating
  • digitalized books and class materials
  • allowing the use of the computer for certain assignments
  • altering instruction (how it’s presented, its pace, or its difficulty)

Supplementary aids and services are intended to be provided in regular education classes, other education-related settings, and extracurricular and other nonacademic settings. This pretty much covers the gamut of school settings where children might be engaged in learning, interaction, and development. As we’ve said, their intent is to help integrate children with disabilities with nondisabled children in all facets of school.

Suppose a child needs a specific supplementary aid or service that’s typically provided in separate environments, not in the regular education classroom? Does this mean that the needed supplementary aid or service doesn’t have to be provided? Or that the child’s placement may then be somewhere other than the regular educational environment?

No, to both questions. As mentioned above, the school system is responsible for providing the supplementary aids and services that the IEP team determines the child needs and lists in the child’s IEP in order to enable the child to be educated in regular education settings. As stated in the language of the LRE provision, supplementary aids and services are to enable the child with a disability to be educated in regular classes with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate. The fact that supplementary aids and services often play a decisive role in whether or not the child can be satisfactorily educated in the regular educational environment makes it all the more important that the school system meet its responsibility to provide them and to educate the child in the LRE to the maximum extent appropriate. If the IEP team has determined that the child can be satisfactorily educated in the regular classroom with the support of a given supplementary aid or service, those aids or services must be specified in the child’s IEP and must be provided to the child. Section 300.116 is sufficiently clear that placement decisions must be based on the individual needs of each child with a disability. Therefore, school systems must not make placement decisions based on their needs or available resources, including budgetary considerations and the ability of the school system to hire and recruit qualified staff.(71 Fed Reg. 46588)

(Video) Least Restrictive Environment In Special Education | Special Education Decoded

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What Other Settings Can Be Considered?

As already discussed, the frame within which placement determinations begin is the regular educational environment. If a child can be satisfactorily educated in that setting (with needed supplementary aids and services), then the general education class is that child’s LRE. Placing this child in a segregated class or separate program would directly violate the LRE provisions in IDEA.

However, the IEP team may determine that the child cannot be educated satisfactorily in the regular education classroom, even when supplementary aids and services are provided. An alternative placement must then be considered.

This is why schools have been, and still are, required to ensure that “a continuum of alternative placements is available to meet the needs of children with disabilities for special education and related services” [§300.115(a)]. These placement
options include:

  • instruction in regular classes,
  • special classes,
  • special schools,
  • home instruction, and
  • instruction in hospitals and institutions.

Provision must be made for supplementary services, such as resource room or itinerant instruction, in conjunction with regular class placement [§300.115(b)].

Having a continuum of placements available “is intended to ensure that a child with a disability is served in a setting where the child can be educated successfully in the LRE” (71 Fed. Reg. 46587). It also reinforces the importance of the individualized inquiry in determining what placement is the LRE for each child with a disability (Id.). As such, the requirement for a continuum of alternative placements supports the fact that determining LRE must be done on an individualized basis, considering “each child’s unique educational needs and circumstances, rather than by the child’s category of disability, and be based on the child’s IEP” (71 Fed. Reg. 46586).

However: Placement is not an “either/or” decision, where children are either placed in a regular education classroom or they’re not. The intent is for services to follow, or go with, the child, not for the child to follow services. Schools must make provision for supplementary services (such as resource room or itinerant instruction) to be provided in conjunction with regular class placement.

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Who Decides Placement?

The group that determines the educational placement for a child with a disability must include individuals with specific expertise or knowledge:

  • the child’s parents;
  • personnel who know the variety of placement options available to meet the child’s needs, and
  • individuals who understand the significance of the data used to develop the child’s IEP. [§300.116(a)]

Often, but not always, this may be the same group of people comprising the IEP team.

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(Video) 01.11.2021 LRE, Placement, and Change of Placement.mp4

How Does the Group Decide Placement?

A child’s placement:

  • is determined each and every year;
  • is based on the child’s IEP;
  • is as close as possible to the child’s home;
  • places the child in the school he or she would normally attend if not disabled (unless the child’s IEP requires some other arrangement). [§300.116(a)-(c)]

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Notifying Parents

Although the parents of the child are part of the group determining the child’s placement and are likely to be well informed as to the placement decision, schools must still provide parents with prior written notice about the placement decision a reasonable time before it implements that decision (§300.503).

The notice that the school system provides to parents must be written in language understandable to the general public and in the parents’ native language or other mode of communication (unless it’s clearly not feasible to do so). The notice must also contain specific information, enumerated at §300.503(b), including (but not limited to):

  • the educational placement of the child to be initiated, as proposed by the agency;
  • an explanation of why the agency proposes that placement;
  • a description of each evaluation procedure, assessment, record, or report the agency used as a basis for the placement decision;
  • a description of other options considered and why these options were rejected;
  • a statement that the parents have protection under IDEA’s procedural safeguards and the means by which a description of those safeguards may be obtained; and
  • sources that can help the parents understand IDEA’s pertinent provisions.

Should the parents disagree with the placement decision, they have recourse to IDEA’s procedural safeguards, which include mediation and due process procedures, as a way of resolving the conflict. A parent of a child with a disability can also file a State complaint.

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Looking for information, resources, and technical assistance to help you and others support children with disabilities in their least restrictive environment in school? Here’s a starter list of places to look online.

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Looking for information about,and best practices for, the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classrooms and in the daily activities of school?

(Video) Placement and Least Restrictive Environment with Dr. Mitch Yell

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How is a child’s placement affected when he or she is being disciplined for a violation of the student code? Find out what authority school personnel have to remove a child from his or her current placement, what authority the hearing officer has, what constitutes a change of placement, and what placement the child will have during any appeal.

Discipline, in Detail

FAQs

What is meant by placing a student in the least restrictive environment? ›

Least restrictive environment (LRE) means kids who get special education should be in the same classrooms as other kids as much as possible. LRE isn't a place — it's a principle that guides a child's education program. The LRE for each child may look different because kids are unique.

Who determines the least restrictive environment? ›

Because LRE is determined by the student's individualized program of instruction and related services rather than by setting, IDEA requires that school districts create a continuum of alternative placement options.

What are the two important components of least restrictive environment? ›

1. Schools must make good effort to place students in less restrictive settings, with the use of supplementary aides and services. 2. It is only when an appropriate education cannot be provided, with the use of aides and services, that students with disabilities will be placed in more restrictive settings.

What is the most restrictive placement? ›

Home and Hospital is the most restrictive educational setting. It is provided for students who cannot attend school due to a medically documented medical or mental health reason.

What are the benefits of least restrictive environment? ›

Some of the benefits of the least restrictive environment include a better education, better preparation for life after high school, more opportunities to socialize, and opportunities to be held to higher expectations.

What factors should educators consider when deciding what placement options are appropriate for a child? ›

Thus, the selection of an appropriate placement for your student must take into account the following four factors: The content of your student's IEP; The LRE requirements; The likelihood that the placement option will provide a reasonably high probability of assisting your student to attain her/his annual goals; and.

How do you determine the least restrictive environment for a child? ›

As already discussed, the frame within which placement determinations begin is the regular educational environment. If a child can be satisfactorily educated in that setting (with needed supplementary aids and services), then the general education class is that child's LRE.

What are some factors that should not influence special education placement LRE for a student with special needs? ›

The district may not make placement decisions based solely on factors such as the following: category of disability; severity of disability; configuration of delivery systems; availability of educational or related services; availability of space; or administrative convenience.

What is an example of least restrictive environment? ›

Home Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Go to the same schools. Be assigned to the same classrooms. Participate in the same extracurricular activities as other children in their schools.

What would you cite to defend the implementation of the least restrictive environment? ›

What would you cite to defend the implementation of the least restrictive environment? To have a special education teacher present to modify for and support special education students.

Why inclusive education is the best educational placement for every child? ›

Kids with special education needs who are in inclusive classes are absent less often. They develop stronger skills in reading and math. They're also more likely to have jobs and pursue education after high school. The same research shows that their peers benefit, too.

How does the concept of least restrictive environment LRE relate to mainstreaming or inclusion practices? ›

The IDEA's LRE or mainstreaming policy requires public schools to educate students with disabilities in regular classrooms with their nondisabled peers, in their neighborhood schools (the schools they would attend if not disabled), to the maximum extent appropriate.

How LRE helps the learners with special needs? ›

It gives them the opportunity to learn along with their peers and has other advantages beyond academic progress. LRE makes it possible for students with disabilities to benefit from an Individualized Education Program (IEP) without sacrificing learning with their classmates without disabilities.

What is the most common placement for students with multiple disabilities? ›

General education classrooms are the most common placement for kids with learning disabilities.

Which of the following would be considered to be the least restrictive of time out options? ›

The least restrictive form of time-out is time-out in the regular classroom (called inclusionary time-out), in which the student is allowed to observe but not actively participate. The student might remain in his or her seat or be moved to the perimeter of the learning activity.

What does least restrictive practice mean? ›

Least restrictive option: “Before. the act is done, or the decision made, regard must be had to whether its purpose can be as effectively achieved in a way less restrictive of the person's rights and freedoms.” Mental Capacity Act 2005, Section 1.

Is the least restrictive environment always the general education classroom Why or why not? ›

LRE is not always the general education classroom. It is individual to each student. Most students are able to be educated in the general education setting or may need the smaller setting of a resource type classroom for a few of their services.

Is inclusion least restrictive environment? ›

Inclusion is also not a place; it too is a guiding principle that guides the child's learning in the least restrictive environment.

What are placement options based on? ›

The placement decision is based on the services your child needs and takes several factors into consideration. By law, your child's placement will be in the least restrictive environment.

How placement decisions are related to FAPE? ›

How are placement decisions are related to FAPE? Placement is where FAPE will be delivered. Decision usually made by IEP team and they must consider based on the IEP, where the FAPE can best be delivered.

What are the educational placement options? ›

Educational placement definition
  • Parental placement.
  • Initial Placement.
  • Community placement.
  • commercial place.
  • Permanent foster care placement.
  • Intercountry placement.
  • Foster care placement.
  • Positive placement.

Who decides what is the appropriate choice of assistive technology for a student? ›

The IEP team at school decides which assistive technology tools each student needs. Many teams make these decisions using something called the SETT Framework.

What is least restrictive environment in preschool? ›

For children ages 3-5, a childcare center could be considered the least restrictive environment, if that is where the child usually goes every day. For other children, the least restrictive environment might be the local Head Start program, a half-day preschool, or at home.

How frequently must a disabled student's placement be reviewed under IDEA? ›

5. How frequently must a disabled student's placement be reviewed under IDEA? ANSWER: Under IDEA, each disabled student's placement must be determined at least annually, must be based on the student's IEP, and must be in the school or facility as close as possible to the student's home.

What are at least four 4 factors to consider when determining the least restrictive environment LRE for students identified with these disabilities? ›

Determining a Student's Least Restrictive Environment
  • Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
  • Appropriate Evaluation.
  • Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
  • Parent Participation.
  • Procedural Safeguards.
  • Least Restrictive Environment.

What is the principle behind LRE how does it benefit a child with special needs? ›

Principle 4: Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Any placement outside the general education classroom must be justified by the child's individual disability-related needs. Students must have meaningful access to same age peers without disabilities, when appropriate.

What factors must be taken in serious consideration in educating a child? ›

Factors that Influence Students' Motivation in Education
  • Class and Curriculum Structure. ...
  • Teacher Behavior and Personality. ...
  • Teaching Methods. ...
  • Parental Habits and Involvement. ...
  • Family Issues and Instability. ...
  • Peer Relationships. ...
  • Learning Environment. ...
  • Assessment.
21 Nov 2020

What is the purpose of the least restrictive environment provision of IDEA quizlet? ›

What is the purpose of the least restrictive environment (LRE) provision of IDEA? To ensure that children with disabilities are educated with non-disabled children whenever possible.

What are the two important components of least restrictive environment? ›

1. Schools must make good effort to place students in less restrictive settings, with the use of supplementary aides and services. 2. It is only when an appropriate education cannot be provided, with the use of aides and services, that students with disabilities will be placed in more restrictive settings.

In what ways do school wide systems of support fulfill the LRE requirement of LRE? ›

In what ways do​ school-wide systems of support fulfill the LRE requirement of​ LRE? They create opportunities to students with disabilities to learn skills that promote access​ to, and progress​ in, the general education curriculum.

How would you justify proximity to the teacher as a method for maintaining classroom order? ›

How would you justify proximity to the teacher as a method for maintain classroom order? Teachers need to move around the classroom and keep little distance between themselves and the students for management.

What factors should educators consider when deciding what placement options are appropriate for a child? ›

Thus, the selection of an appropriate placement for your student must take into account the following four factors: The content of your student's IEP; The LRE requirements; The likelihood that the placement option will provide a reasonably high probability of assisting your student to attain her/his annual goals; and.

What is an inclusive learning environment and why is it important? ›

“Inclusive learning and teaching recognises all student's entitlement to a learning experience that respects diversity, enables participation, removes barriers and anticipates and considers a variety of learning needs and preferences.”

What are some factors that should not influence special education placement LRE for a student with special needs? ›

The district may not make placement decisions based solely on factors such as the following: category of disability; severity of disability; configuration of delivery systems; availability of educational or related services; availability of space; or administrative convenience.

What is the relationship between LRE and inclusion? ›

The term LRE is often used in conjunction with the concept of "inclusion." Inclusion means allowing students with I/DD to participate in the general education classroom and extracurricular activities. The degree to which a student is included in a general education classroom is determined by the IEP team.

What is LRE and how is it implemented in the schools? ›

The IDEA's LRE or mainstreaming policy requires public schools to educate students with disabilities in regular classrooms with their nondisabled peers, in their neighborhood schools (the schools they would attend if not disabled), to the maximum extent appropriate.

Why inclusive education is the best educational placement for every child? ›

Kids with special education needs who are in inclusive classes are absent less often. They develop stronger skills in reading and math. They're also more likely to have jobs and pursue education after high school. The same research shows that their peers benefit, too.

What is the most common educational placement for students with emotional and behavior disorders? ›

Approximately 31% of all students classified with an emotional disturbance receive their education in a special education classroom (Also referred to as a “self-contained” classroom).

How can a teacher best accommodate children with additional needs? ›

Successful Strategies for Teaching and Supporting Students with Disabilities
  • Lean on others. ...
  • Stay organized. ...
  • Don't reinvent the wheel. ...
  • Know that each student is unique. ...
  • Keep instructions simple. ...
  • Embrace advocacy. ...
  • Create opportunities for success. ...
  • Don't feel pressure to be perfect.

What is an example of least restrictive environment? ›

Home Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Go to the same schools. Be assigned to the same classrooms. Participate in the same extracurricular activities as other children in their schools.

What would you cite to defend the implementation of the least restrictive environment? ›

What would you cite to defend the implementation of the least restrictive environment? To have a special education teacher present to modify for and support special education students.

What is least restrictive environment and example? ›

Home Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Children with disabilities should, in most cases: Ride the same school buses. Go to the same schools. Be assigned to the same classrooms. Participate in the same extracurricular activities as other children in their schools.

What does least restrictive practice mean? ›

Least restrictive option: “Before. the act is done, or the decision made, regard must be had to whether its purpose can be as effectively achieved in a way less restrictive of the person's rights and freedoms.” Mental Capacity Act 2005, Section 1.

Why is it important to consider least restrictive environment for students with disabilities? ›

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) helps children reach their full potential in school. It gives them the opportunity to learn along with their peers and has other advantages beyond academic progress.

What would you cite to defend the implementation of the least restrictive environment? ›

What would you cite to defend the implementation of the least restrictive environment? To have a special education teacher present to modify for and support special education students.

What are some factors that should not influence special education placement LRE for a student with special needs? ›

The district may not make placement decisions based solely on factors such as the following: category of disability; severity of disability; configuration of delivery systems; availability of educational or related services; availability of space; or administrative convenience.

Is inclusion least restrictive environment? ›

Inclusion is also not a place; it too is a guiding principle that guides the child's learning in the least restrictive environment.

What is the purpose of the least restrictive environment provision of IDEA quizlet? ›

What is the purpose of the least restrictive environment (LRE) provision of IDEA? To ensure that children with disabilities are educated with non-disabled children whenever possible.

What are the 5 restrictive practices? ›

This guide explains what a restrictive practice is, and sets out information on the five types of regulated restrictive practices, being: chemical restraint • environmental restraint • mechanical restraint • physical restraint • seclusion.

What are the rules in using restrictive practices? ›

if restrictive intervention must be used, it must not include the deliberate application of pain. if a restrictive intervention must be used, it must always represent the least restrictive option to meet the immediate need. staff must not use seclusion other than for people detained under the Mental Health Act 1983.

What does restrictive practice mean and when may it be used? ›

Restrictive Practice is used to stop a person from doing behaviours of concern. • A behaviour of concern might be a behaviour like when you hurt yourself or hurt another person. or. It might be behaviour like when you are angry and break furniture.

How do you determine the least restrictive environment for a child? ›

As already discussed, the frame within which placement determinations begin is the regular educational environment. If a child can be satisfactorily educated in that setting (with needed supplementary aids and services), then the general education class is that child's LRE.

Why inclusive education is the best educational placement for every child? ›

Kids with special education needs who are in inclusive classes are absent less often. They develop stronger skills in reading and math. They're also more likely to have jobs and pursue education after high school. The same research shows that their peers benefit, too.

What is educational placement in special education? ›

Educational placement means the provision of special education services, including but not limited to those points along the continuum of alternative placements. "Educational placement" does not mean a specific place, such as a specific classroom or school.

What is the principle behind LRE how does it benefit a child with special needs? ›

Principle 4: Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Any placement outside the general education classroom must be justified by the child's individual disability-related needs. Students must have meaningful access to same age peers without disabilities, when appropriate.

What factors must be taken in serious consideration in educating a child? ›

Factors that Influence Students' Motivation in Education
  • Class and Curriculum Structure. ...
  • Teacher Behavior and Personality. ...
  • Teaching Methods. ...
  • Parental Habits and Involvement. ...
  • Family Issues and Instability. ...
  • Peer Relationships. ...
  • Learning Environment. ...
  • Assessment.
21 Nov 2020

How would you justify proximity to the teacher as a method for maintaining classroom order? ›

How would you justify proximity to the teacher as a method for maintain classroom order? Teachers need to move around the classroom and keep little distance between themselves and the students for management.

Videos

1. 2019 09 Special Education Placement Options
(FCSN)
2. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
(slide show me)
3. Continuum of Placement
(Special Education AcademyTM)
4. Special Education Placements REDEFINED!
(Special Education Inner Circle)
5. Least Restrictive Environment & Placement
(Kirsch Daskas Law Group)
6. Assistive Technology Consideration for the IEP
(Parents Helping Parents)

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