Reference List: Electronic Sources // Purdue Writing Lab (2023)

Note:This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 stylecan be found here.

Important Note: Some electronic citations necessitate the use of brackets. APA style dictates that brackets should directly surround their content without spaces (e.g., [bracketed content] should look like this). When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Additionally, APA 7thedition no longer requires the use of “Retrieved from” before URLs or DOIs; special exceptions, however, are made for resources that are unarchived. Including the retrieval date for these sources indicates to readers that the version of the work they retrieve may be different than what was originally used.

Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited electronic sources. For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Webpage or Piece of Online Content

If the page names an individual author, cite their name first:

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium. https://humanparts.medium.com/laziness-does-not-exist-3af27e312d01

If the resource was written by a group or organization, use the name of the group/organization as the author. Additionally, if the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the citation.

Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims. https://www.aspca.org/news/justice-served-case-closed-over-40-dogfighting-victims

If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. Additionally, include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time (like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited).

Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Tuscan white bean pasta.(2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved March 18, 2020, fromhttps://www.budgetbytes.com/tuscan-white-bean-pasta/

If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).

Author or Group name. (n.d.).Title of page. Site name (if applicable). URL

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions. https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions

Wikipedia Article

APA 7 treats Wikipedia articles as special instances of entries in reference works. Thus, there are a few differences between reference entries for pages on Wikipedia and those for generic webpages.

Title of article. (Year, Month Date). InWikipedia.URL of archived version of page

Quantum mechanics. (2019, November 19). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quantum_mechanics&oldid=948476810

(Video) Purdue OWL Citing Electronic Sources

Wikipedia articles often update frequently. For this reason, the date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Note also that the manual recommends linking to the archived version of the page, rather than the current version of the page on the site, since the latter can change over time. Access the archived version by clicking "View History," then clicking the date/timestamp of the version you'd like to cite.

Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs

Please note: Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.

Note also that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOIs from print publications or ones that go to dead links with doi.org's "Resolve a DOI" function, available on the site's home page.

APA 7also advises writers to include a DOI (if available), even when using the print source.

Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.(Issue), page numbers. DOI

Drollinger, T., Comer, L. B., & Warrington, P. T. (2006). Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, 23(2), 161-180. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20105

Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

If an online scholarly journal article has no DOI and is published on a website, include the URL. If an online scholarly article has no DOI and is published on a database, do not include a URL or any database information. The only exception is for databases that publish articles that are in limited circulation (like ERIC) or that are only available on that particular database (like UpToDate). Note that retrieval dates are required for unarchived sources that are likely, or intended, to change over time.

Perreault, L. (2019). Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise. UpToDate. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/obesity-in-adults-role-of-physical-activity-and-exercise

Abstract

APA 7th edition does not provide guidance on how to cite abstracts. However, if you only use information from the abstract but the full text of the article is also available, we advise you to add "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. If the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.

Online News Article

Note:The format for this type of source depends on whether your source comes from a site with an associated newspaper.

If the sourcedoescome from a site with an associated newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the title of the newspaper.

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL

Richards, C. (2019, December 9). Best music of 2019: Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/best-music-of-2019-lana-del-rey-sings-lullabies-about-the-end-of-america/2019/12/06/6e82c5ec-15d8-11ea-a659-7d69641c6ff7_story.html

On the other hand, if the sourcedoesn'tcome from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the title of the article, but leave the name of the site unformatted.

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Name of publishing website. URL

Jones, J. (2020, May 10). Why flats dominate Spain's housing market. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200506-why-do-flats-dominate-spains-housing-market

Electronic or Kindle Books

It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book. However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook.

Lastname, F. M. (Year).Title of book. Publisher. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year).Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. URL (if applicable)

(Video) Purdue OWL: APA Formatting: Reference List Basics

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.

Duis, J. M. (2008). Acid/base chemistry and related organic chemistry conceptions of undergraduate organic chemistry students(Publication No. 3348786) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author

Note:An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date (like in the example below). If that’s the case, use “n.d.” for the date and include the retrieval date in the citation.

Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work. URL

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Braggadocio. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved January 13, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/braggadocio

Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (edition). Publisher. URL or DOI

Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step.

Data Sets

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group (Year). Title of dataset (Version No.) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL

Grantmakers in the Arts. (2019). Arts funding trends, United States, 1994-present (ICPSR 37337) [Data set]. National Archive of Data on Arts & Culture. https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NADAC/studies/37337

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps, Infographics, and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title. If there is no title, in brackets, you should provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Include the URL and the retrieval date if there is no publication date.

HatchMed. (2017). 8 ways to improve patient satisfaction [Infographic]. HatchMed.com. https://www.hatchmed.com/blog/2017/1/30/8-ways-to-improve-patient-satisfaction

Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of Purdue University]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://www.google.com/maps/@40.4237095,-86.9233886,17z

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If the interview transcript is published in an online periodical, like a magazine, cite the interview the same way you would cite the medium where it is published, as shown below:

(Video) Citing Electronic Sources Using Purdue's OWL

Schulman, M. (2019, December 8). Peter Dinklage is still punk rock. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/culture/the-new-yorker-interview/peter-dinklage-is-still-punk-rock

If it is an audio file or transcript published in a database, credit the interviewee as the author and use the following model:

Paynter, W. (1970, September 17). Interview with Will Paynter [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/interview-will-paynter

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL

Smith, C. (2017, October 13). AI and machine learning demystified [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/carologic/ai-and-machine-learning-demystified-by-carol-smith-at-midwest-ux-2017

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of software (Version No.). Publisher. URL

Maplesoft. (2019). Maple companion (Version 2.1.0). Cybernet Systems Co. https://www.maplesoft.com/products/MapleCompanion/

Email

E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you should parenthetically cite them in your main text:

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion Posting

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher. URL

Stine, R. L. [RL__Stine]. (2013, October 23). I’m R.L. Stine and it’s my job to terrify kids. Ask me anything! [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/1p32dl/

Tweet

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words[Tweet]. Site Name. URL

Note: If the tweet includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.

National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/1216346352063537154

Twitter Profile

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

MLA Style [@mlastyle]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://twitter.com/mlastyle

(Video) APA Reference Lists: A More Detailed Explanation

Facebook Post

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

Note: If the Facebook post includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 10). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/USInterior/photos/a.155163054537384/2586475451406120/?type=3&theater

Facebook Page

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Little River Canyon National Preserve (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 12, 2020 from https://www.facebook.com/lirinps/

Instagram Photo or Video

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

BBC [@bbc]. (2020, January 12). Skywatchers have been treated to the first full moon of 2020-known as a “wolf moon”-at the same time as a [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B7OkWqbBwcf/

Blog Post

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher. URL

Axelrod, A. (2019, August 11). A century later: The Treaty of Versailles and its rejection of racial equality. Code Switch, NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2019/08/11/742293305/a-century-later-the-treaty-of-versailles-and-its-rejection-of-racial-equality

YouTube or other Streaming Video

Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL

Lushi, K. [Korab Lushi]. (2016, July 3). Albatross culture 1 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_AMrJRQDPjk&t=148s

Note: The person or group who uploaded the video is considered the author. If the author’s name is the same as the username, you can omit the [Username].

Ted Talk

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. TED. URL

Al-Mutawa, N. (2010, July). Superheroes inspired by Islam [Video]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/naif_al_mutawa_superheroes_inspired_by_islam#t-4909

Or (if on YouTube)

Username. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. YouTube. URL

Tedx Talks. (2011, Nov. 15). TEDxHampshireCollege - Jay Smooth - How I learned to stop worrying and love discussing race [Video]. YouTube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbdxeFcQtaU

Podcast Episode

Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (No. if provided) [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of podcast. Publisher. URL

(Video) APA 7th Edition: References | Part I

FAQs

How many references do you use for et al? ›

“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries. Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.

How do you write an electronic reference in APA format? ›

Include information in the following order:
  1. author name and initial, or group name, followed by social media identity information (provide the author's screen name in square brackets. If only the screen name is known, provide it without brackets.
  2. date. ...
  3. title. ...
  4. format. ...
  5. source url. ...
  6. retrieval date.

Should APA 7 references be hyperlinked? ›

ACAP recommends the use of live, blue hyperlinks in reference lists. Remember to be consistent throughout the entire document. See also the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines for more information.

Are citation generators accurate? ›

Make sure to use reputable, accurate sources.

Citation generators work with the sources you give them. They can't evaluate whether those sources are good or not. This means that it's possible to use a citation generator to assemble a bibliography that's technically flawless, but nevertheless useless.

Do you use et al for 3 authors Harvard? ›

“Et al.” is used in Harvard style to indicate that a source has four or more authors. By using “et al.”, writers can also avoid having very long citations that list every single author.

Does et al need a full stop? ›

This is abbreviated to et al. (with a full stop at the end) and it is used in a citation when you have three authors or more. This makes your citation more manageable. When using the authors name in your writing you should include the full stop after et al.

How do you write a full reference to an electronic source in the list of references? ›

To cite your electronic sources in text, use the APA guidelines for print sources. For direct quotation of a specific passage, cite author, date, page (Anakwe, Igbaria, & Anandarajan, 2010, p. 2) or According to Anakwe, Igbaria, and Anandarajan (2010), “Most management research is privately funded” (p. 2).

What is included in a reference to an electronic source? ›

Author. (Publication date). Title of document. Publishing information or electronic retrieval information.

How do we cite electronic resources within a research paper in APA? ›

Common citation elements for electronic resources include:
  1. author/editor.
  2. publication or update date.
  3. article title.
  4. journal title.
  5. the type of medium (i.e. CD-ROM, online, etc.)
  6. volume and/or pages.
  7. a source statement (e.g. URL, electronic database vendor, email address, etc.)
  8. date you accessed the resource online.

What should an APA 7th reference list look like? ›

For APA the reference list is arranged in alphabetical order of authors' surnames. Arrange by first author's name, then by second author if you have the same first author, etc. (check the page on Authors for how to lay out the reference if you have more than one author).

Should I remove hyperlinks in references? ›

The APA Style blog recommends having active links (hyperlinks) if your document is electronic (Microsoft Word document, PowerPoint, etc.). If your document will be printed, the APA Style blog recommends removing the hyperlinks.

Do you remove hyperlinks in references? ›

You should keep hyperlinks active. Consider your reader and the paper's final delivery method (print or digital) when deciding whether to format links as blue text with underline or as plain text.

What are three cons of using citation generators? ›

Cons: Only offers MLA and APA. Doesn't offer the most current versions. Blocks access to versions that are being upgraded. Requires user to have some knowledge of punctuation for various field.

What is the most accurate citation generator? ›

Best Citation Generator Tools
  • Mendeley Cite.
  • Zotero.
  • EndNote.
  • Paperpile.
  • Cite This for Me.
  • Citation Machine.
  • EasyBib.
  • BibMe.
4 Oct 2022

How do you reference the same source twice? ›

Yes, you can abbreviate the subsequent citations of the source. If the subsequent citation is in the footnote immediately following the full citation, you can use 'ibid'. Used alone, 'ibid' means 'in the very same place' – in other words, the same source and the same page or paragraph as the preceding full citation.

How do you cite if there are 3 authors? ›

A Work by Three or More Authors

List only the first author's name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

How do you cite two sources with the same author? ›

In the Works Cited (Per the MLA Handbook (9th edition), p. 221: To cite two or more works by the same author, give the name in the first entry only. Thereafter, in place of the name, type three hyphens, followed by a period and the title. The three hyphens stand for exactly the same name as in the preceding entry.

Is it OK to use et al in email? ›

in an Email. Use it in an email greeting by saying, “Dear Mr. Smith et al.,” when there is more than one recipient. For punctuation, always follow the abbreviation with a period since it's short for “et alia” or “and others.”

Do you use et al for 3 authors APA? ›

APA in-text citations with multiple authors

If there are three or more authors, only include the first author's last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”. Group authors known by their abbreviations (e.g., CDC) are written in full the first time and are abbreviated in subsequent citations.

How many authors use et al APA 7? ›

When you have 3 or more authors, you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al." (Latin for "and others"). In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20).

What are the 4 electronic sources? ›

More Tips for Referencing Electronic Sources

e-mail. e-journal. database. Internet.

Is a PDF an electronic source? ›

A PDF, after all, is not really a source itself, but rather a file type and a way to display a source. For example, if the source you wish to cite is a PDF of a newspaper article, cite the source as you would a newspaper.

How do you in text cite electronic sources MLA? ›

Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known.

What does a reference list contain? ›

A reference list contains details of all sources cited in text. A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title. A reference list is generally placed at the end of a work.

What is electronic reference citation? ›

The APA Style Guide to Electronic References says to "format references to technical and research reports and other gray literature as you would a book retrieved online." Thus, a reference to an annual report follows the usual who-when-what-where format. For example, American Psychological Association. ( 2013).

What is an electronic reference work? ›

What is E-Reference? Electronic Reference materials are sources of information in the form of online encyclopedias, dictionaries, timelines, handbooks, and guides. These resources provide reliable and accurate quick facts, definitions, and background information on any topic.

How do you cite online sources both in text and in references? ›

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).

How do you format an electronic source citation without page numbers? ›

"When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Use the heading or section name, an abbreviated heading or section name, a paragraph number (para. 1), or a combination of these."

Is APA 7 references double spaced? ›

All references should be double spaced with a 0.5 in or 1.27 cm hanging indent (APA, 2020, p.

How should reference list be written? ›

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.

Do you need page numbers in APA reference list? ›

Yes, page numbers are included on all pages, including the title page, table of contents, and reference page. Page numbers should be right-aligned in the page header.

Are links included in citations? ›

“A citation is any mention of your business out on the web, with or without a link.

Should hyperlinks always be blue? ›

Shades of blue provide the strongest signal for links, but other colors work almost as well. As always, when using color to signal information, you should provide redundant cues for color-blind users.

Is a DOI the same as a URL? ›

DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works. A URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser.

How DOI remove a link from a reference list? ›

You can also select all text (control + A), then do Ctrl + Shift + F9. That will unlink all references from their citations.

How do you put a URL in a reference? ›

The URL, or Uniform Resource Locator is the hyperlink or web address of the work you are citing: The URL always comes at the end of the reference list entry. Use if there is no doi. Journal articles may provide a digital object identifier (doi) on the first page of the article or in the article details.

How do you shorten a URL for referencing? ›

Here's how to shorten a URL.
  1. Copy the URL you want to shorten.
  2. Open Bitly in your web browser.
  3. Paste the URL into the "Shorten your link" field and click Shorten. Just paste your URL in the field and you're ready to shorten it. Stefan Ionescu/Insider.
  4. Click Copy to grab the new URL.
8 Apr 2022

Why is APA format so difficult? ›

APA style makes it difficult to cite sources within your text because it switches its format based on the length of the title and the size of the work. Unlike your references list, where you capitalize only the first word of a title, capitalize all words that are four letters long or longer.

What are the two most commonly used referencing styles? ›

APA style is the most common referencing style, but different schools, departments, and lecturers may have their own requirements. APA style is commonly used in Education, Business, and some Social Sciences and Humanities disciplines. MLA style is often used in English and Media Studies.

Is it okay to use a citation Machine? ›

Citation Machine is a great resource to use when conducting research for your paper. It can help you keep track of any sources you've used in your paper. Create a Works Cited page in MLA formatting, an APA citation, or a simple citation in any of our other style offerings. The choice is yours!

Why should you avoid relying on computer generated citations? ›

They may simply not think to double-check the citations they receive, and thus miss the occasional errors that even well-designed citation generators can make. In short, relying entirely on citation generators rather than on one's judgment as a writer can lead to errors.

Can Grammarly help with citations? ›

Anytime you're reading on a compatible source website, you'll see a “Get citation” button appear in the bottom-left corner of your screen. Click this button, and Grammarly will present a full citation and an in-text citation for the source you're viewing, ready and formatted for you to use.

What is the easiest way to cite a source? ›

How does one cite a source?
  1. For books: author, title, place of publication, publisher, and publication year.
  2. For articles: author, title of article, title of journal, volume, issue, date, page numbers, and doi or permalink.
  3. For web page resources: author, title of page, Web address or URL, and date of access.
27 Aug 2022

Is there an app that cites sources for you? ›

Zotero instantly creates references and bibliographies for any text editor, and directly inside Word, LibreOffice, and Google Docs. With support for over 10,000 citation styles, you can format your work to match any style guide or publication.

What is a good citation tool? ›

Zotero, Mendeley and EndNote can store your citation libraries locally on your computer. Zotero allows you to easily save snapshots of web pages and annotate them within your citation library. It is a great tool for saving citation information from some web-based publications and commercial and social networking sites.

What is the best free reference manager? ›

Top 5 Free Reference Management Software in 2022
  • ReadCube Papers.
  • Sciwheel.
  • Paperpile.
  • Citavi.
  • figshare.

How do you cite 3 authors in APA? ›

A Work by Three or More Authors

List only the first author's name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

How do you cite 4 authors in APA? ›

APA in-text citations with multiple authors

If a work has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation or “and” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first author's last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”.

How many references should I have for a 1500 word essay? ›

Generally, you need to use one to two references for the point you are trying to make. Roughly, for a 1500-word essay, this makes a minimum of 10 references. This, however, also depends on the topic or the subject you are covering in the essay.

How do you cite 5 authors? ›

Provide all the authors' last names when you first refer to a document with 3-5 authors. Only list the first author with the Latin abbreviation "et al." for any subsequent references. Example: Jones, Chavez, Jackson, and Chen (2010) duplicated...

How do you reference 5 authors in APA? ›

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the first 19 authors' names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author's name (do not place an ampersand before it). There should be no more than twenty names in the citation in total.

How do you cite multiple sources in text APA? ›

When citing multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons. Arrange two or more works by the same authors by year of publication. Place citations with no date first, followed by works with dates in chronological order.

How do you in text cite APA 7 with multiple authors? ›

Number of Authors to Include in In-text Citations

For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.

Do you list all authors in APA? ›

For a work with up to 20 authors, include all of the names in the reference. When the work has 21 or more authors, include only the first 19 names, an ellipsis, and the final name (see this guideline in the fifth and sixth bullets in Section 9.8 of the Publication Manual and Example 4 in Chapter 10).

How many authors use et al APA 7th edition? ›

When you have 3 or more authors, you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al." (Latin for "and others"). In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20).

How do you reference multiple authors? ›

Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

Can you write a 3000 word essay in 3 days? ›

Writing 3,000 words can take anywhere between six and 24 hours depending on the topic but, with our tips, you can easily get it done within a day. Get your head down and you could meet the deadline, and even produce an essay you are proud of.

How many citations should a 5000 word essay have? ›

3000 word essay: 20 sources (or more) listed in the reference list. 5000 word essay: 33 sources (or more) listed in the reference list.

Can you reference too much? ›

It is a good idea to have a reference for every claim you make, if possible. Do not worry about using referencing too often. As a general rule, it is better to use the references too often than not enough. This does not refer to the number of different authors/texts, but the frequency of citing those authors.

How do you cite a research article with 5 authors? ›

Book with Three to Five Authors or Editors

NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name followed by et al. and the year. References: Author Surname, First Initial.

Who is the most famous writer? ›

William Shakespeare was an English playwright, poet and actor who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist.

Do you include all authors in APA in text citation? ›

Specifically, articles with one or two authors include all names in every in-text citation; articles with three, four, or five authors include all names in the first in-text citation but are abbreviated to the first author name plus et al.

Videos

1. APA References Lists--Writing Notes
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2. DAY 2 Purdue OWL APA Formatting Reference List Basics
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3. Using the Purdue/Owl Citation Generator
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4. APA 7th Edition: References | Part II
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5. Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting: List of Works Cited
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